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Cutting mulberries (also mulberry or mulberry) is not difficult. This is one of the simplest vegetative ways to propagate mulberries, and cuttings can be harvested both in autumn and summer: green cuttings, semi-lignified, lignified. In spring, cuttings of mulberry trees are combined with grafting. As for the ornamental varieties, only propagation by grafting is suitable for them. Regardless of the chosen breeding method, seedlings take root very easily.
Mulberry propagation methods
Mulberry is propagated in almost all available ways:
Most often, mulberry cultivation is carried out from cuttings.
In spring, the mulberry tree is usually propagated by means of top grafting (copulation), before the sap begins to move in the plants. The most effective is copulation with a sprouting eye.
How to propagate a mulberry tree by cuttings
Mulberry propagation by green and semi-lignified cuttings, as a rule, does not cause any difficulties. Cutting with lignified planting material is a little more difficult and takes longer. In addition, the yield is less at this dilution. If from semi-lignified cuttings, which are planted in June, full-fledged seedlings grow by autumn, then it will take at least a year to grow lignified cuttings.
How to propagate mulberries by cuttings in the fall
In autumn, mulberry propagation is carried out through lignified cuttings. The process of preparing planting material looks like this:
- In the fall, before the onset of frost, a strong lignified shoot is selected on the mulberry tree from the upper part of the plant.
- Cuttings of 15-18 cm are cut from it.
- The resulting cuts are treated in the lower part with any rooting stimulator (for example, "Kornevin"). Such processing of the lower sections will ensure better rooting of the planting material in the future.
- Then the cuttings are planted on a pre-prepared bed, deeply deepening. There should be no more than 5 cm above the ground.
- Germination of cuttings in this place takes 2 years. After that, seedlings with a full-fledged root system can be transplanted.
Advice! You can, harvested in autumn, cuttings, plant in a moistened substrate and remove them in the cellar before the start of active sap flow. Then the planting material is planted in open ground.
How to propagate mulberries by cuttings in spring
In spring, mulberry propagation by cuttings is combined with grafting on the stock. The preparation of planting material begins in the spring, in mid-March. It is important to be in time before the buds begin to bloom.
The breeding procedure looks like this:
- Cuttings of equal length are cut from the mulberry tree.
- The day before grafting, the cuttings are cut from the lower side.
- Then they are placed with renewed ends in clean water at room temperature.
- Two cuttings are chosen - a scion and a stock. An oblique cut is made on them and the cuttings are combined together. The cuts are firmly fixed with a bandage or plastic wrap. This method is called simple copulation.
Mulberry propagation by cuttings in summer
In summer, it is best to propagate mulberries using green cuttings. The procedure for harvesting green cuttings is as follows:
- In June, a healthy shoot is chosen on a mulberry tree, rather soft to the touch (grassy). It should be the current year.
- Cuttings are cut from the selected branch so that each cut contains 2-3 buds.
- Each stalk is cleaned - leaves at the bottom are removed.
- The remaining leaves are cut in half. This is necessary for the further development of the cutting.
- The resulting planting material is planted in a greenhouse to a depth of 3-4 cm.
- Throughout the growth, the cuttings are moderately watered, trying not to flood - the stagnation of moisture is detrimental to the mulberry.
- From time to time, the greenhouse is ventilated, and as the planting material grows, this period is increased from several minutes to half an hour.
- A month after planting, the cuttings are fertilized with mineral fertilizers.
- After about 30-35 days, the planting material should form a full-fledged root system.
Advice! The cultivation of mulberry trees using the green cuttings method can be conveniently combined with sanitary pruning in the summer months.
Breeding a mulberry tree with semi-lignified cuttings is an excellent alternative to green cuttings. In July, the mulberry already forms strong healthy branches, but they do not have time to woody by this time. Such shoots are cut in June. Seedling care is similar to growing green cuttings. The only difference is the longer breeding period: the procedure is extended in time by 1.5 months.
Mulberry propagation by seeds
Compared to the propagation of mulberry by cuttings, the seed method of breeding is not so popular. Despite its simplicity, it has one significant drawback - the loss of varietal qualities. The traits of the mother plant when propagated by seeds are not transmitted to the next generation. That is why seedlings grown from seeds are often used as rootstocks for grafting.
The algorithm for growing mulberries from seeds is as follows:
- Ripe mulberry berries are collected from the branches and placed in a container.
- The container with the fruits is placed in direct sunlight and kept there until the collected berries begin to ferment.
- With the beginning of the fermentation process, the fruits are crushed and ground in water.
- The raised layer of pulp is drained. Then the berry mass is again poured with water and rubbed again until clean seeds remain.
- The resulting planting material is laid out on a tray or plate to dry.
- Once the seeds are dry, they are stored in a cloth or paper bag until spring. It is necessary to store the planting material in a dry place with room temperature. The kitchen is not suitable for this because of the sudden changes in temperature.
- 35-40 days before sowing the seeds, they are moistened and placed in the refrigerator on the upper shelf. This is necessary for stratification of the planting material.
- In open ground, seeds are sown in late April - early May. At the same time, it is not recommended to bury the planting material too deep - a depth of 1 cm is enough.
- The seeds are sprinkled with earth and watered sparingly so that the seeds do not wash away.
Advice! When planting thickens, it is necessary to thin out the seedlings with the formation of 4-5 leaves.
Experienced gardening tips
Danilov Matvey Egorovich, 55 years old, Magnitogorsk
Cutting a mulberry tree is a simple matter. The procedure itself is described step by step on the network. But it is equally important to provide the seedling with good survival - for this it is necessary to choose the right site for planting mulberries. A well-lit area, protected from strong northerly winds, is best suited for this. For example, you can plant a mulberry tree next to a residential building, barn or fence, always on the south side. The planting site must be well-drained; mulberries do not tolerate stagnant water in the soil. This is fraught with root rot. There is no need to water the mulberry. An additional source of moisture is needed only in the southern regions with hot climates, in the territory of central Russia there is enough natural precipitation. The preferred type of soil for planting is loam.
Ankina Ekaterina Vasilievna, 47 years old, Moscow
For breeding mulberries, the seed method of reproduction is not suitable. With this method, the resulting seedlings will not correspond to the features of the mother plants - some of the varietal qualities will be lost. On the other hand, seedlings from local samples have a better survival rate in these climatic conditions. They are also more resistant to winter frost. For breeding, you can choose the strongest seedlings, leave the rest. The mulberry, propagated by seed, blooms, usually 5 years after planting.
Kovaleva Anastasia Alexandrovna, 38 years old, Yekaterinburg
Agrotechnology of reproduction is important, but the quality of the planting material also matters - seedlings from seeds obtained in the Rostov region take root very poorly, for example, and the mulberry from the Crimea has acclimatized perfectly. Before buying, you need to study the manufacturer better. But, in general, you can harvest seeds yourself. The main thing is to preserve them correctly before sowing.
Mulberry cuttings are usually straightforward, even for beginner gardeners. This garden crop is very easy to propagate - it has good survival rate regardless of the breeding method. Mulberry can be planted with seeds, cuttings, layering, by grafting. It is cuttings that are most popular - this method is not only simple, but also allows you to preserve the varietal qualities of the tree, in contrast to the seed method of propagation. In order for the plant to take root in a new place, it is enough only to precisely comply with the basic requirements of agricultural technology.
For more information on how to cut mulberries, see the video below: