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When choosing cherries, gardeners often prefer well-known and time-tested varieties. One of them is the Turgenevskaya variety, which has been grown in garden plots for over 40 years.
Cherry Turgenevskaya (Turgenevka) was bred by the All-Russian Research Institute of Selection of Fruit Crops in the Oryol Region. Turgenevka was obtained by pollination of the Zhukovskaya variety. The work on it was carried out by the breeders T.S. Zvyagin, A.F. Kolesnikova, G.B. Zhdanov.
The variety was sent for testing, according to the results of which in 1974 it was included in the State Register.
Description of culture
Features of the cherry tree varieties Turgenevskaya:
- average strength of growth;
- tree height from 3 to 3.5 m;
- crown of medium thickening, in the form of an inverted pyramid;
- straight brown branches of medium length;
- kidneys 50 mm long, in the form of a cone;
- the bark of the trunk is brown in color with a bluish tint;
- leaves are dark green, narrow, oval, with a sharp tip;
- the sheet plate has a boat shape and a glossy surface.
The inflorescences consist of 4 flowers. The petals are white, close to each other. The size of the flower is about 2.4 cm.
Characteristics of Turgenevka cherry fruits:
- average weight 4.5 g;
- size 2x2 cm;
- wide heart shape;
- in ripe fruits, the skin has a rich burgundy color;
- dense and juicy pulp;
- sweet and sour taste:
- cream bones weighing 0.4 g;
- stalks about 5 cm long;
- the bones are well separated from the pulp;
- tasting score - 3.7 points out of 5.
The Turgenevka variety is recommended for growing in the following regions:
- Central (Bryansk region);
- Central Black Earth (Belgorod, Kursk, Oryol, Voronezh, Lipetsk regions);
- North Caucasus (North Ossetia).
Photo of the Turgenevka cherry tree:
According to gardeners' reviews about Turgenevka cherry, its resistance to drought, frost, diseases and pests deserves special attention.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
Turgenevka cherry is characterized by medium drought tolerance. In hot weather, it is recommended to water the trees, especially during the flowering period.
The Turgenevskaya variety has a high winter hardiness. Trees tolerate temperatures as low as -35 ° C.
Flower buds are moderately resistant to cold snaps. The variety is susceptible to spring frosts and sudden temperature changes.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening times
Flowering occurs in medium terms (mid-May). The ripening period for Turgenevskaya cherries is early or mid-July.
The Turgenevka variety is partially self-fertile and capable of producing crops without pollinators. To increase the yield, sweet cherries or other varieties of cherries with a similar flowering period are planted in the immediate vicinity of the tree.
The best pollinators for Turgenevka cherries are the varieties Lyubskaya, Favorit, Molodezhnaya, Griot Moskovsky, Melitopol'skaya joy. In the presence of pollinators, the shoots of the tree are strewn with fruits and often bend under their weight to the ground.
Fruiting of the Turgenevka variety begins 4-5 years after planting. The tree has a life span of 20 years, after which the cherry needs to be replaced.
A young tree bears about 10-12 kg of fruit. The yield of an adult cherry is about 20-25 kg.
After ripening, the fruits do not crumble and remain hanging on the branches. Under the sun, their pulp withers and tastes sweeter.
Scope of berries
Cherry Turgenevka is suitable for home canning: making juices, compotes, preserves, tinctures, syrups, fruit drinks. Due to the sour taste, the fruits are rarely used fresh.
Disease and pest resistance
The Turgenevka variety has an average resistance to diseases and pests. Most often, signs of moniliosis and cocomycosis appear on trees. Variety care involves preventive spraying.
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of the Turgenevka variety:
- high and stable yield;
- large fruits;
- good winter hardiness;
- transportability of fruits.
Before planting the Turgenevka variety, take into account its main disadvantages:
- sour taste of fruits;
- dependence of productivity on the pollinator;
- precocity below average.
The planting of Turgenevskaya cherries is carried out at a certain time. The fruiting of the variety depends on the correct choice of a place for cultivation.
Planting work is carried out in the fall, in September or October, when leaves fall. It is important to plant the cherries before the cold snap so that the seedling has time to take root.
When planting in spring, work begins after warming up the soil, but before bud break. The best time for planting is the second decade of April.
Choosing the right place
Cherry prefers places with good sun light. The tree is planted on a hill or on a flat area. It is not recommended to place cherries in places with high groundwater flow or in lowlands where moisture accumulates.
The culture grows well in drained soil: loam or sandy loam. Sour soil is not suitable for growing cherries. Lime or dolomite flour, which is buried to the depth of a shovel bayonet, will help reduce acidity. After a week, the soil is fertilized with compost.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to cherries
Cherry Turgenevka gets along well with other shrubs. Other varieties of cherries, grapes, mountain ash, hawthorn, sweet cherry, honeysuckle are planted near the tree at a distance of 2 m. The exception is raspberries, currants and sea buckthorn.
Advice! An elderberry can be planted next to the crop, the smell of which scares off aphids.
It is better to remove apple, pear, apricot and other fruit crops from cherries by 5-6 m. Their crown creates a shade, and the roots absorb many useful substances.
Beds with tomatoes, peppers and other nightshades are not equipped next to the plantings. You should also remove the Turgenevka variety from birch, linden, maple and oak.
Selection and preparation of planting material
For planting, choose a two-year-old seedling of the Turgenevka variety up to 60 cm high and a trunk diameter of 2 cm. There should be no signs of decay, cracks or other damage on the roots and shoots.
After purchase, the roots of the seedling are kept in clean water for 3-4 hours. Kornerost stimulant can be added to the water.
The order of planting Turgenevka cherries:
- A hole 70 cm in size and 50 cm in depth is dug at the chosen place.
- The pit is left for 3-4 weeks to shrink. If the cherry is planted in spring, you can prepare the pit in late fall.
- 1 kg of ash, 20 g of potassium sulfate and 30 g of superphosphate are added to the fertile soil.
- The soil mixture is poured into a hole, then a seedling is placed in it.
- Cherry roots are spread and covered with earth.
- The soil is well compacted. The seedling is watered abundantly.
Follow-up care of the culture
Dry, weak, broken and frozen shoots are eliminated from Turgenevka cherries. Pruning is done before or after the growing season.
To prepare for winter, the tree is watered abundantly in late autumn, after which the trunk is spud. The soil in the near-trunk circle is mulched with humus. To protect against rodents, spruce branches are tied to the trunk.
Advice! With abundant precipitation, the tree does not need watering. If there is a drought during the flowering period, it is recommended to moisten the soil every week.
A full-fledged top dressing of Turgenevka cherries begins 3 years after planting. In early spring, the tree is watered with mullein infusion. During and after flowering, 50 g of superphosphate and potassium salt are embedded in the soil.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
The main diseases that cherries are susceptible to are shown in the table:
Leaves, flowers and tops of shoots dry up. Over time, gray growths appear on the bark.
Spraying with Bordeaux liquid or Cuprozan solution.
Distribution of brown dots on the leaves, under which a pinkish bloom appears.
Spraying with Bordeaux liquid and copper sulfate solution.
Brown or yellow spots on the leaves, drying out of the fruit pulp.
Spraying with 1% copper sulfate solution.
The most dangerous pests of cherries are shown in the table:
Signs of defeat
Insecticide treatment Fitoverm.
The larvae eat the pulp of the fruit, which rot and crumble.
Spraying with Aktara or Spark insecticides.
The larvae feed on the fruit, resulting in crop loss.
Cherry treatment with benzophosphate.
Cherry Turgenevka is a proven variety, fruitful and winter-hardy. Fruits are inferior in taste to modern varieties, but are well suited for processing.
Maria, 39 years old, Saratov
Two cherries of the Turgenevka variety grow at the dacha. For the fourth year now I have been collecting a good harvest from them. The branches bend under the weight of the fruit. An important condition for high yields is the presence of a pollinator. We have planted several varieties of cherries next to the cherry, which are pollinators for Turgenevskaya cherry. The variety is winter-hardy, does not get sick, although we regularly carry out treatments. The fruits are large, fragrant, dark in color. They make excellent jam and compote. We freeze part of the crop for the winter. The only drawback is the sour taste, especially when the fruit is picked early.
Evgeny, 46 years old, Krasnodar
A couple of years ago, I planted Turgenevka cherry seedlings in my summer cottage. Last year, Turgenevka was pleasantly surprised. The variety turned out to be very fruitful, with large fruits. The tree is medium-sized, quite disease-resistant. The fruits have a rich, almost black color, without signs of coccomycosis. Although Turgenevka is considered self-fertile, cherries and cherries are planted next to it, which contribute to its pollination. The tree blooms and bears the harvest with garlands. The taste is sour, so the fruits will be used for homemade preparations.