Every year the number of fans of the Napoleon cherry variety is growing rapidly. The plant is cultivated as a supplier of tasty, healthy berries that are characterized by juiciness and sweetness.
Breeding history of the variety
Sweet cherry Napoleon from among the old varieties bred by European breeders in the 19th century. The stock for Napoleon was the Antipka Magaleb cherry.
Description of the variety of sweet cherries Napoleon
Sweet cherry Napoleon belongs to high-yielding varieties of late ripening. A tree of strong growth forms a dense, spherical, well-leafy, spreading crown. In height it can reach up to 5-6 meters. At a young age, the plant grows intensively, and at the time of fruiting, it grows moderate. A large tree is decorated with dark green leaves in the form of an elongated oval with a pointed top, without pubescence.
They delight with their flowering in early April. Medium-sized flowers have saucer-shaped petals, collected in inflorescences of 2-3 pieces. Attention is drawn to the large fruits of dark red color, which, when ripe, acquire a black color. The weight of one berry is up to 6.5 g. The fruits have an irregular oval shape. Under the thick skin there is a pulp, characterized by firmness and medium juiciness. Sweet and sour taste with pleasant bitterness. Tasting score - 4.9 points out of 5.
Another late-ripening thermophilic European variety is Napoleon pink cherry. On the territory of central Russia, it is rarely cultivated, since the culture is highly susceptible to high frosts. Therefore, the variety does not take root well and gives a poor harvest in areas with low air temperatures. And in the southern latitudes, it presents with a rich harvest of delicious bright pink sweet cherries, distinguished by their large size and pulp density.
Sweet cherry Napoleon yellow does not exist, there are only two types of this variety - black and pink.
Stopping your choice on Napoleon cherries, you need to familiarize yourself with the characteristics of the variety, which includes information about the culture's resistance to low temperatures, excess moisture, diseases and insects, as well as information about the timing of flowering and ripening of berries.
Winter hardiness of sweet cherry Napoleon Black and Pink
Sweet cherry Napoleon is characterized by an average yield, the plant can withstand up to -30 C. And also, thanks to its deep root, which allows it to receive moisture from the lower layers of the earth on hot days, the culture can withstand dry weather.
Who pollinates sweet cherry Napoleon
The sweet cherry variety Napoleon is declared self-fertile. But for a high-quality harvest, you can plant nearby varieties Valery Chkalov, Early Mark, Zhabule, Drogan Zheltaya. In case of significant plantings, it is advisable to form seedlings in paired rows.
Productivity and fruiting
Fruiting of this late variety begins 4–5 years after planting. The crop can be harvested in the last days of June. The average yield of the sweet cherry variety Napoleon is 30 kg, and when growing crops in the southern regions up to 70 kg per tree.
Scope of berries
Sweet cherry Napoleon belongs to the universal varieties. Berries are not only a great dessert product, but also high-quality raw materials that are used to make jam, compote, dried fruits, as well as for various processing and freezing. Traditional healers widely use the culture, as infusions and decoctions of berries can strengthen and tone the body, increase immunity and help in the treatment of many diseases.
Disease and pest resistance
Sweet cherry Napoleon Black is resistant to fruit rot, moniliosis, coccomyosis. And of the pests, a cherry fly, aphid, a sawfly can choose a cherry orchard. The Napoleon Rose cherry is also susceptible to rot, although it has good resistance to fungal diseases, and it is almost not damaged by such a common pest as the cherry fly.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The sweet cherry variety Napoleon is endowed with a lot of advantages, thanks to which it arouses interest and attention among gardeners. Positive characteristics include:
- high productivity;
- excellent keeping quality; the harvest can last up to 14 days in a cool place;
- the ability to withstand transportation over long distances without losing the presentation;
- versatility; berries are great fresh, dry, twisted for the winter and frost;
- a source of nutrients that can protect the human body from many diseases.
With all the many advantages, the sweet cherry variety Napoleon also has some disadvantages:
- intolerance to low temperatures;
- poor resistance to such pests as cherry fly.
Before the process of planting sweet cherries of the Napoleon variety, you need to take into account all the needs of the culture for its normal growth, proper development and crop formation.
Sweet cherries Napoleon can be planted in spring and autumn. Planting in the spring should be carried out before the buds swell, since a tree planted later will hurt and may not take root. And also autumn is considered a favorable time for planting. Before the onset of winter, the root will have time to deepen and take root. And with the arrival of spring, intense growth and development of sweet cherries will be observed.
Choosing the right place
Sweet cherry Napoleon is demanding on growing conditions, it does not tolerate wet and cold soils and needs a huge amount of heat. Groundwater should be at least 2 m, and the area is protected from drafts and shading. The plant loves a nutritious soil composition, so you should choose a moist soil with good drainage and with sufficient water resistance and optimal acidity.
What crops can and cannot be planted nearby
Sweet cherry Napoleon is quite whimsical in choosing the plants of neighbors. The best solution would be to plant cherries, sweet cherries, grapes, mountain ash, hawthorn nearby. But the apple tree, plum, cherry plum will shade the cherry tree, so they should be planted at a distance of 5-6 meters.
Selection and preparation of planting material
When buying planting material, you need to pay attention to its appearance. Cherry seedling Napoleon should be no more than 3 years old, the bark should have an even color, without mechanical and thermal damage. The presence of kidneys is required. The root system should have 3 roots of 0.2 m each. If the root is brown on the cut, then it is affected by frost, and such a purchase of such a seedling should be discarded.
An important criterion for growing, on which the regularity of fruiting and the quality of the crop directly depends, is the correct planting.
Stages of the planting process for sweet cherries of the Napoleon variety:
- Prepare the site for planting in advance by digging, clearing it of weeds and fertilizing it well.
- Make landing holes, keeping the distance between them 3-4 m.
- Equip the bottom of the pit with fertile black soil mixed with a complex set of fertilizers.
- Insert a peg, which will be a reliable support during the growth.
- When installing seedlings, you need to orient its root collar in a southern direction, and it should also rise slightly above the surface of the soil.
- Cover with soil substrate, compacting thoroughly to avoid voids.
- At the end of planting, pour warm water and mulch the soil near the trunk circle with peat or humus.
Proper planting will have a positive effect on yield growth and the development of the tree as a whole.
Cherry follow-up care
In order to form a full-fledged high-quality harvest of sweet cherries of the Napoleon variety, it is enough to perform such important procedures as:
- Watering. It is necessary to properly organize watering, moistening the soil and maintaining it in an optimal condition for the normal development of Napoleon cherries. The plant needs water at the end of flowering, during the formation and pouring of fruits, as well as during the dry period, it is necessary to soak the soil to a depth of 40 cm. It is advisable to water in the fall to saturate the plants with moisture before the cold season.
- Pruning. Provides for the shortening of annual shoots, pruning of incorrectly located branches directed into the crown, as well as the elimination of damaged, dry and frozen branches. After pruning, it is required to process the cut sites using a garden pitch for quick healing and prevention of disease and insect infestation.
- Top dressing. To improve the growth of shoots of a culture, it is necessary to provide it with the necessary nutrients in sufficient quantities. To this end, add fertilizers using organic matter and mineral compositions.
- Preparation for wintering. Winter shelter is needed if the crop is grown in harsh climates. In rare cases, the shoots may freeze slightly, but Napoleon cherries have a quick recovery of parts of the tree damaged by frost.
Cherry care is simple and within the power of all gardeners who wish to grow it. It is important to carry out all the activities, and it, feeling cared for, will begin to grow and develop faster, presenting delicious berries.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Cherries of the Napoleon variety must be protected from cherry flies and other parasites that intensify their activities after the winter period. And also during this period, you need to constantly inspect the plant, since in the spring it can easily pick up a dangerous disease such as coccomycosis, fruit rot, moniliosis.
The prevention of diseases and pests consists in the spring processing of trees with the use of biological products and insecticides. Work to be carried out in April, before the onset of the movement of the juice.
To protect the cherries, it is necessary to spray using a Bordeaux solution or azophos, and to achieve the maximum effect, combine the use of these funds by alternating them.
The sweet cherry variety Napoleon is loved by many gardeners, because it pleases with its bright taste. Observing all agrotechnical methods for growing and following the recommendations for care, you can get a high-quality harvest of sweet and juicy berries.
Petrenko Nikolay Pavlovich, 45 years old, Belgorod
Finally I found my cherry variety. This is Napoleon cherry. I advise everyone to pay attention to it. The short growth of the tree and the narrow crown in the shape of a pyramid take up little space in the garden. Care is simple, the main thing is to water on time, carry out pruning and carry out preventive work against pests and all kinds of dangerous parasites.
Zaitseva Oksana Viktorovna, 38 years old, Kursk
Summer is considered a great time for sweet lovers, including myself. Indeed, during this period I can satisfy my craving for my favorite delicacy without harm to my health. Therefore, I decided to plant a cherry orchard in my garden. I chose the sweet cherry variety Napoleon, which was undeservedly forgotten. Its characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, biological features completely satisfy me.