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How to propagate a pear from a branch

How to propagate a pear from a branch


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Propagation of pears by cuttings allows you to grow a self-rooted seedling. The material taken from a varietal tree guarantees the preservation of all characteristics: resistance to disease, frost, taste, size of fruits, their keeping quality and transportability. Such pears have an advantage over grafted trees - they suffer less from the high occurrence of groundwater.

Can a pear be propagated by cuttings

Most often, gardeners propagate varietal pears by grafting a cuttings or an eye. If the rootstock and the scion are poorly compatible, seedlings with low frost resistance and poor immunity are obtained. The yield is worse, does not correspond to the declared one.

The problem can be solved by growing own-rooted pear seedlings from cuttings. Advantages of own-rooted pear:

  • durability;
  • the tree recovers well from root growth when the aerial part is damaged;
  • high winter hardiness;
  • preservation of all varietal characteristics of the pear.

Varieties suitable for growing pear cuttings

Pear varieties are distinguished by their ability to reproduce by cuttings. Rooting, in addition to varietal characteristics, is influenced by many factors:

  • the age of the tree;
  • the power of the escape;
  • timing of cuttings;
  • quality of a root formation stimulator.

The percentage of rooting of cuttings is higher in small-fruited pears. According to gardeners, there are no problems with varieties:

  • Autumn Yakovleva;
  • Lada;
  • Elegant Efimova;
  • Muscovite;
  • Memory of Zhigalov.

You can experiment with any other variety, but the result is not guaranteed.

How to grow pear seedlings by cuttings

The result of vegetative propagation of pears by cuttings depends on their quality and the correct choice of substrate for rooting. For boxes, the best option is a 3-4 cm layer of washed river sand poured onto a litter of sphagnum moss. When rooting cuttings in a greenhouse, a layer of leaves is added down.

The process of root formation in substrates is going well:

  • peat with sand in a ratio of 1: 1;
  • peat with sand in a ratio of 1: 2;
  • peat with perlite in proportions 1: 1;
  • peat with vermiculite in proportions 1: 1.

Preparing cuttings

The result of rooting of pear cuttings depends on the timing of the cuttings, the time of harvesting (morning, afternoon, evening), and the weather. Rooting is influenced by the length and thickness of the cutting. Thin branches are not good, they take root worse. The length is determined based on the size of the internodes. If short, then 3-4 pieces are left on the pear handle, if long, then 2 is enough.

Cutting pears in autumn

In autumn, annual lignified branches of pears are taken for reproduction. They are harvested during the dormant period, when the leaves have already flown around. Pros of propagating pears by cuttings in the fall:

  • leaves are absent, there is no evaporation of moisture;
  • no need to create greenhouse conditions for the rooting period.

Advice! Tops - escapes growing vertically cannot be used for cuttings. Branches of a pear are suitable, extending from the trunk in a horizontal direction.

Pear branches growing in the lower part of the crown are taken for cuttings. They root much better and faster than cuttings taken from the top of the tree. Cuttings from 15 to 20 cm long are cut from the branches:

  • lower cut - at an angle of 45 °, done under the kidney;
  • the upper cut is straight over the kidney.

The cuts are different, so that there is no confusion, where is the top of the pear cutting, and where is the bottom. For winter storage, take a small container, fill it with a moist, lightweight substrate. The cuttings are tied into a bunch, hang a tag with the name of the variety, stick the lower ends of the cuttings into the ground. For the winter, they are sent to a bright, cool room. In the spring they are transplanted to the school.

Propagation of pear cuttings in summer

It is important to choose the right time for breeding. The optimal period for this does not exceed 2 weeks. Green pear cuttings are recommended to be carried out when the intensity of shoot growth decreases. If the spring is late and protracted, the cuttings are harvested in late June - early July. Gardeners in the middle zone of the Russian Federation propagate pears with green cuttings in June (second half).

To achieve good results, a number of rules must be followed:

  • cut the cuttings correctly;
  • use growth regulators (root formation);
  • prepare a high-quality substrate;
  • create optimal temperature and humidity conditions for the rooting of green pear cuttings.

With proper grafting of a pear in the summer, the cuttings have 2-3 internodes, 2 leaves, smooth cuts made with a sharp garden knife. One sharp (lower) is directed towards the kidney, located directly below it. The second is made horizontally, it is done above the upper kidney.

Important! It is better to harvest cuttings early in the morning, when there is more moisture in them.

A greenhouse is equipped for rooting. It should be covered with a frame with glass, polycarbonate or foil. The substrate is poured in a layer of 30 cm. The cuttings are buried, leaving only 2 eyes outside.

In the summer, caring for plants consists in regularly moistening the soil with a spray bottle, ventilating the greenhouse. For the winter, young seedlings are sheltered from frost with sawdust, peat or spruce branches.

How to root a pear stalk at home

You will need a container with a height of at least 35 cm. The first layer can be filled with black soil, mixed with humus and mineral fertilizers. Its thickness is 20 cm. The second layer is well-washed river sand (coarse-grained, medium-grained). Its thickness is 5 cm.

Both layers moisturize well. The lower tips are dipped into the Kornevin solution, then buried 2 cm into the substrate. Plants create greenhouse conditions. Tightly tighten the container with plastic wrap. Caring for cuttings growing at home:

  • airing (once a week);
  • watering from a spray bottle.

The film is removed after 2 weeks. By the 30th day, the seedlings form the rudiments of the roots.

Landing in open ground

By the fall, the seedlings are ready to be transplanted into a greenhouse. It is held in the second half of September. They are taken out of the box along with a lump of earth. They are transplanted into prepared pits, trying not to damage the roots.

The substrate is moistened, mulched with a layer of humus, sawdust or peat. For the winter, young seedlings are covered with spruce branches and 2-3 layers of lutrasil. In a greenhouse, they are grown for 2-3 years, after which they are transplanted into the garden to a permanent place.

Propagation of pears by air layers

Experienced gardeners advise beginners to master a simple method for propagating pears by layering. Young 3-4 year old trees are suitable for this method. It takes 2 years to grow a seedling. It is better to root pear layering in a plastic box.

Inside it is lined with black foil so that moisture does not evaporate. The container is filled with fertile soil (garden soil, humus, peat). A healthy 2-year-old branch is found on a tree, and a box filled with earth is placed under it.

The branch is bent down to the box. For rooting, it must be immersed in the ground. Before doing this, the bark is incised on the layer (2-3 notches). The injured area is powdered with "Kornevin". They are immersed in the ground. Pinned with a thick wire brace. Sprinkle with soil.

The procedure is carried out in the spring. By the fall, the roots will appear, but the seedling, ready for transplantation, will only form in a year. The list of mandatory measures for the care of the layering:

  • regular monitoring of soil moisture;
  • compost mulching;
  • in the heat - the construction of a shelter from the sun;
  • in the fall - insulation of the box with covering material or spruce branches;
  • in winter - throwing snow.

At the age of 2 years, the seedling is separated from the mother tree, using a lopper or garden saw. The rooted cut is taken out of the box, keeping a lump of earth on the roots, and planted in a hole prepared before.

Branches growing high are difficult to bend. They get out of the situation simply - they are rooted in a plastic bottle. To do this, cut off the bottom and top parts. A longitudinal incision is made along the entire length. Prepare a mixture of fertile soil with sand (2: 1).

An incision is made on the shoot, departing from the top by 2-3 internodes. To the place where the roots will form:

  • put on the bottle so that the incision is exactly in the middle;
  • fill it with a mixture;
  • wrapped with cling film;
  • fixed with tape.

Propagation of pears by seeds

With the help of seeds, rootstocks are grown. For this, zoned, frost-resistant varieties are chosen. Fully ripe seeds are taken:

  1. Placed in a gauze bag, subject them to bubbling for 2-3 days, wash out inhibitors that slow down germination.
  2. A wet mixture of sawdust and peat is poured into the bag, seeds are sent there.
  3. Until the sprouts appear, the bag is kept in the refrigerator at t + 3 ... +5 ° C.
  4. After pecking, the temperature is lowered to 0 ° C.

In early spring, germinated seeds are sown in a greenhouse. Planting scheme - 8 (10) x 8 (10) cm. Sprinkle with a layer of soil 3-4 cm. Summer care of seedlings is reduced to watering, removing weeds.

How to propagate a columnar pear

Seed propagation of columnar pears is rarely used in practice. Gardeners prefer to plant cuttings on the stock. In the middle lane and in the Urals, wild forest pears are used, Ussuriyskaya Dichka - in the Far East.

They are engaged in the cultivation of own-rooted columnar seedlings from green shoots. They practice autumn grafting of pears. Columnar varieties on a rootstock from Dichka enter fruiting only at the 5th year. Their crown must be thinned annually, thin side shoots must be removed.

Conclusion

Propagation of pears by cuttings allows you to grow high-quality self-rooted seedlings. Trees grown from them give the first harvest in 3-4 years. The rules for grafting are simple. It's pretty easy to follow them. Expert advice will help you master them.


Watch the video: Propagation By Air Layering (May 2022).

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