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Among the varieties of fruit crops, ornamental shrubs are of particular interest. For example, Manchurian apricot. An amazingly beautiful plant that will decorate the site and give a decent harvest of fruits of the original taste.
The variety was bred in the research center of the Russian Federation, more precisely, and its Chinese branch. The task of the breeders was to obtain an apricot that resembles Japanese sakura. The result obtained fully satisfied the needs of gardeners. The Manchurian variety was included in the State Register of the Russian Federation in 2005.
Description of culture
Apricot Manchurian belongs to the species of deciduous plants of the genus Plum. It reproduces quite easily, but it is still listed in the Red Book as a rare species. The description of the Manchurian apricot variety should start with the external characteristics. It is the attractive decorative appearance of the bush that is the reason for the popularity of the variety among gardeners.
This rare variety has an openwork, spreading, but dense crown, throwing out many shoots. The height of the Manchurian apricot in an adult state reaches 10-15 m. The young tree has a light brown bark, it darkens during maturation, and in the old apricot it is covered with wide and deep furrows. The trunk diameter reaches 40 cm.
Important! Breeders recommend tying the branches of the variety.
Filigree leaves reach a size of 12 cm. The shape of the leaf plates resembles a wide oval with a pointed top. The color of the plates changes depending on the season. In summer, the upper part of the leaf is bright green, the lower is dark green. When autumn comes, the leaves turn yellow-red. They keep on the tree until mid-November, leaf fall begins when frost sets in. Due to the original color of the leaves, the variety is a popular ornamental plant for decorating the site.
The flowers are located on the branches singly or in groups, they are kept on short pedicels. During the flowering period, the branches are covered with pale pink buds of large size (more than 2 cm).
The buds bloom on the branches before the leaves, so the bush looks like a huge flower:
The fruits are large, the size of one reaches 2.5 cm in diameter. The color is bright, yellow-orange. Slightly drooping skin. The weight of one apricot reaches 15-20 g. The taste is peculiar, sweet and sour, very pleasant. The aroma of the fruit resembles honey.
The best option, according to the recommendations of breeders, is the cultivation of Manchurian apricots in Siberia and the Far East.
You can see with your own eyes all the parameters described in the photo of the Manchurian apricot.
An important characteristic for gardeners is the long lifespan of the Manchurian variety. The shrub grows and bears fruit for up to 100 years. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully choose a place for planting a variety so that a beautiful plant fits into the design of the site.
Undemanding to the soil is also considered a feature of the variety.
Strong root system. The branching and size of the roots allows the use of a rare variety for strengthening the slopes and coastlines of water bodies.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
The second positive quality suitable for gardeners is endurance. Apricot varieties Manchzhurskiy has high resistance to temperature changes. It easily tolerates drought and significant drops in temperature. Shows high winter hardiness, perfectly tolerates the climate of the north of the middle zone. It freezes a little in the St. Petersburg region in very harsh winters, although the frost resistance of the Manchurian apricot allows the plant to be planted in regions with a cold climate.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening times
Apricot has an average self-fertility. The Manchurian variety provides enough of its own pollination and helps other varieties to increase yields. To do this, it is necessary to plant 3-4 shrubs on the site. If it was not planned to plant several plants, then other varieties are inoculated on one Manchurian apricot.
The tree begins to bloom in the spring in April-May. The Manchurian apricot variety is characterized by annual abundant flowering within 12 days. Harvest ripening term - July.
The shrub shows good yields even in stony areas. But if you plant a Manchurian apricot variety on fertile structured soil, then the plant will develop much better.
The first fruits appear 5-7 years after planting the seedling. The yield is high, the apricot bears fruit annually, consistently, without reducing performance. About 40 kg of ripe fruits are removed from one tree. Competent adherence to agrotechnical measures increases the yield to 45-50 kg from each Manchurian apricot.
Scope of the fruit
The specificity of the taste of the Manchurian apricot variety is due to its decorative orientation. They have a peculiar sourness and a little bitter taste, but this does not affect the possibility of universal use. Apricots are consumed fresh, boiled - compotes, jams and preserves.
Attention! How to cook a fragrant apricot jam, you can learn from the article.
Experienced chefs find use for apricot pits. When fried, they successfully replace almonds and are used to prepare apricot oil. Due to its high fat content, the oil is used in cosmetology.
Disease and pest resistance
The originators noted the weak resistance of the Manchurian apricot cultivar to aphids, mites, cherry elephants. To prevent the spread of pests, it is necessary to use the appropriate means.
The most common diseases for the Manchurian apricot variety are spotting and verticellosis.
Advantages and disadvantages
Among the advantages of an ornamental shrub, gardeners note:
- Decent yield indicator. The number of fruits from one tree does not decrease with increasing age of the apricot.
- High level of transportability. The apricot also tolerates loading and unloading well.
- Keeping quality of fruits. Manchurian apricot is stored for a long time, without losing external and flavor parameters.
- Resilience to climate change.
- Immunity to a significant part of crop diseases and pests.
- Decorativeness of the bush.
The disadvantages are the peculiar taste of the fruit - bitter-sour.
Important activities for a gardener when breeding a beautiful variety are planting and caring for Manchurian apricots.
Shrub growing begins with planting. If the planting of Manchurian apricot is done correctly, then the plant quickly takes root and develops well.
The optimal time for planting a decorative apricot is the last decade of April. At this time, the soil is already warmed up thanks to sunny spring days.
Important! The planting should not be delayed, it is necessary to have time before the swelling of the fruit buds.
Autumn planting of seedlings is possible, but requires more careful attention. Winter frosts can harm fragile seedlings.
Choosing the right place
The planting site should be prepared in a well-lit area with aerated and lime-containing soil. It is worth making sure that there is no stagnation of moisture and strong salinity in the allocated place. The most favorable for the Manchurian variety are areas protected from the north wind. For the same reason, shrubs are not planted in lowlands to avoid cold air draining.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to an apricot
The Manchu apricot variety does not like proximity:
- apple trees;
- red rowan.
It goes well only with any varieties of apricots. Refers to individualistic plants.
Selection and preparation of planting material
The seeds of the variety have the ability to be stored for several years without losing the ability to germinate.
Before planting them:
- Check by immersion in water. Floated instances are removed as unusable.
- Stratified, in other words, stored at 0 ° C in damp sand and with good ventilation. The stratification period is 3 months.
Important! Seeds are checked to increase the percentage of germination.
To plant the seeds, it is necessary to prepare a furrow 1 cm deep, lay the seeds and sprinkle with soil. Be sure to water.
If you want to plant a seedling of Manchurian apricot, then prepare a pit, fertilize it with compost. The seedling is immersed to such a depth that the root collar is 2-3 cm above the soil surface.
Follow-up care of the culture
Manchurian apricot care does not cause much trouble.
For the proper development of the plant, it is important to observe:
- Watering. It must be timely, especially in the first year after planting. Frequency - once every 5-6 days. When the plant gets stronger, it is enough to water it only when the soil dries up. Overflow is dangerous because a large number of shoots will not be able to fully form before the onset of frost and will simply die.
- Sanitary pruning. Obligatory annual procedure. It is important to remove dry, damaged and diseased branches, as well as excess growth in time. Pruning is done in early spring and autumn. You can learn more about pruning apricots in the article on this issue.
- The bush is fed 2 times a year. In the spring - mineral compositions, in the fall it is good to add organic matter to the soil. In summer, food is brought in only when signs of a deficiency of certain substances appear.
- Loosening of the near-stem circle and mulching.
- Whitewashing the trunk. Garden whitewash is used with the addition of copper sulfate to protect against pests.
- To insulate the trunk for the winter, a thick layer of mulch is laid.
Reproduction of decorative apricot
Reproduction of the Manchurian apricot occurs in 2 ways:
- seeds (stratified);
- cuttings (green).
The seeds are taken from ripe fruits, soaked in water before planting. Drowned ones are selected and stratified for 3 months at a temperature of 0 ° C. Then they are planted in the ground to a depth of 1 cm. They are watered regularly. Seedlings are grown in a mother liquor, after 2-3 years they are transplanted to a permanent place.
The material is harvested in July, planted at the end of September. Cuttings are cut from strong branches, leaving 2-3 internodes and a couple of leaves. Placed in a vessel with a stimulating solution for 15 hours at an air temperature of 24 ° C. The stock for the Manchurian apricot must be reliable. It is selected from varieties adapted to the conditions of the region to ensure the longevity of the shrub and good yields.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Diseases to which the variety is susceptible
|Name||Prevention and control|
|Spotting||The drug "Hom" according to the instructions.|
|Verticillosis||Soap solution for preventive and therapeutic spraying.|
|Spider mite||Insecticides "Tabu" and "Regent".|
|Cherry elephant||Potassium permanganate solution|
|Aphid||Preparations containing copper.|
Apricot Manchurian has won appreciation for its unpretentiousness, decorativeness and productivity. Growing a rare variety is not difficult for novice gardeners who want to decorate their site with beautiful and useful plants.
Reviews of the Manchurian apricot prove the originality and usefulness of the variety.
Maria Ivanovna Selezneva, Moscow region
I have been growing apricots for a long time. I really like the decorativeness of Manchurian, especially in autumn. Began to bear fruit at the age of 6. The yield is high, stable annually. So that the indicator does not decrease, we plant the variety in a group. Thanks to this, the pollination of the Manchurian is easier. Fruits are often mixed in blanks with other varieties. They add a spicy flavor. Be sure to hand over the bones for processing to obtain oil. We fry at home. The variety makes it possible to receive not only aesthetic pleasure, but also profit.
Egor Plotnikov, Amur Region
I planted my first Manchurian apricot seedlings on the site. I really liked the variety for its unpretentiousness and ease of care. Now I grow for the sale of seedlings and delivery of seeds. I'm happy with the result. The productivity of the shrub is regular and high, there are no interruptions. There is almost no lunge of seedlings if the seeds are properly prepared. The plants are beautiful, many people like the peculiar taste of the fruit, so there is no shortage of customers. Gardeners are attracted by the opportunity to grow apricots in a region with a cold climate.