Mushrooms are mushrooms that have extremely valuable nutritional properties. However, you can find them on the territory of our country almost everywhere, the main thing is not to confuse them with some false varieties.
Botanical description and origin of boletus
Boletus is also called the Boletov family of the same name, and the most popular species in this family, which everyone knows by the phrase Boletus edulis. There are both edible and false representatives of this family. Moreover, real mushrooms are a favorite delicacy of adults and children, since the fungus has a high nutritional value, as well as a rather massive body: a full-fledged dish can be prepared literally from 2-3 fruiting bodies.
Different types of boletus have a fairly dense leg shape and a round hat of light shades (from beige to brownish), which in diameter reaches 6-7 cm. The flesh on the lumen is white, with age it can turn a little blue or red. To the touch, different parts of borovichka are different: if the hat has a smooth or velvety texture, then the leg is more often in appearance and feel mesh, although it can be smooth.
Mushrooms grow mainly in families of 3-4 mushrooms. Moreover, with age, they grow to such large sizes that finding even 1 mushroom is a great success. The weight of the fruiting body in the most developed representatives reaches 1 kg.
Taste and nutritional value of boletus
Mushrooms have long been gathering mushroom pickers, as they are not only nutritious, but also have excellent aroma and taste. And this despite the fact that the calorific value of the product is extremely low - only 34 kcal per 100 g. This is explained by a large (up to 90%) proportion of water.
Along with nutrients, the pulp also contains vitamins D, C and B1, carotene and riboflavin. Thanks to this, boletus has a complex effect on the body:
- wound healing.
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It is riboflavin that plays an important role in maintaining the health of the thyroid gland, the condition of the hair, nails and skin.
Edible species of mushroom boletus
Mushrooms are almost impossible to grow in the conditions of their own plot, so the only alternative is to independently pick mushrooms. The most popular are several varieties that taste good and excellent in taste.
This is the most famous species that can be considered a real champion: its hat is normally from 10 to 30 cm, and in some representatives it grows to half a meter in diameter. The mushroom has a barrel-shaped legs (height up to 25 cm), the surface of which is mesh (the texture of the hat is often smooth). The color ranges from brown to white, and the skin grows to the base so much that it can only be separated after treatment with boiling water. There are quite a few varieties of ceps:
Also, experts distinguish several forms according to the peculiarities of their coloring and lifestyle:
- lemon yellow;
- orange red;
- arctic and others.
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The arctic form grows even in the mountain tundra of the Khibiny Mountains, located in the North-West of Russia. You can meet this variety at an altitude of 500-700 meters above sea level.
In general, ceps are cosmopolitan species. - i.e. ubiquitous living organisms: from Scandinavia to southern Europe, everywhere in Russia, from Canada to Mexico and even in Iceland. This species does not grow only in Australia and the islands closest to it.
This is a variety of porcini mushroom called oak. It has a netted white leg and a convex light brown hat with a diameter of up to 30 cm. The skin is smooth or velvety, and crack in dry weather. In color from light to dark coffee tones.
It is interesting that the species appears in May, and gives fruit even in October. Mostly distributed under beeches, oaks, chestnuts. This species can also be found in lipoviks.
This variety is also called Beaulet bronze, dark chestnut or dark bronze. The fungus is quite rare - it prefers only fertile soils and a mild, non-hot climate, so basically it can be found in the Chernozemye.
Ripens from mid-summer to early fall, grows singly and in small groups of 2-3 mushrooms. A characteristic feature - the color of the hat is dark coffee, almost bronze. The leg is fleshy, mesh, has classic brown tones.
Perhaps the most striking and interesting variety of boletus. It has a convex, semicircular hat of bright red and coral tones. The touch is velvety, so it strongly resembles a ripe peach.
The leg is massive, smooth with white-pinkish flowers. It is interesting that the flesh on the cut is white-yellow, and over time gives bluish tones. This representative is mainly found in North America. In Russia, prefers the zone of Black Earth and Volga. You should be careful with less bright mushrooms - such hats belong to a false variety, which is inedible.
This mushroom is often considered inedible due to its unusual poisonous green or light yellow color. This is completely unreasonable - in fact, the species is perfectly suitable for humans. The hat is from 5 to 17 cm in diameter, initially convex, but with age it becomes flatter. In conditions of high humidity, it acquires a mucous texture, which is completely normal.
Distinctive feature - the pulp smells practically nothing, and on the cut pretty quickly acquires blue shades. In Russia it is found only in the protected territory of the Ussuri Territory; also grows in Europe - but only in western countries.
In the Caucasus and the Far East of Russia, you can meet this rare variety, which has a characteristic appearance. Fruit bodies with a pinkish hat, reminiscent of young potatoes in color, and the leg - light yellow shades. Moreover, the main pulp is concentrated in it - up to 15 cm high, diameter - up to 6 cm.
The fruit body has a rich aroma, excellent taste. Matures throughout the summer until mid-autumn.
How to quickly find boletus in the forest
What does a false boletus look like
Mushrooms and porcini mushrooms have a rather characteristic appearance - a regular fruit body, a fleshy hat of light beige, brownish hues and a thick leg of white and light yellow color, usually with a mesh coating.
Nevertheless, going to the forest, you should carefully study the false species of boletus, which in shape are much like real ones. An inexperienced mushroom picker risks making a mistake, so you should remember about a very simple rule: "Not sure - don't take it."
The false form is also called the satanic cep; here are some signs it can be distinguished from the present:
- Leg reddish, pink, with a mesh coating; reminds a tuber of a young potato.
- The pulp is friable, watery (in white it is always dense).
- The hat is whitish, with poisonous green or yellow hues.
- At the break, the flesh very quickly changes color - from white to blue, red or pinkish.
- There is a satanic double in uncharacteristic for a white alder or under poplars, as well as in bushes.
- On the cut, adult mushrooms emit a rather unpleasant odor that even old white ones do not smell.
Thus, the first signs that are most clearly given out by the satanic double are bright colors uncharacteristic for true whites: from orange to brick red.
Sometimes mushroom pickers recorded such strange cases when, under the same tree, both a satanic mushroom and a true white mushroom grew nearby, and they did not differ in color at all. In these cases, it is palpation that helps: the flesh of a false appearance is always loose. And another reliable test - the white flesh does not turn blue when cut.
Why is mushroom boletus so called
If you decipher literally, then boletus is a mushroom growing in the forest, i.e. in coniferous forests (mainly pine forests on sandy and sandy loamy soils).
As for the phrase "white mushroom" (often called simply white), it is obvious that its origin is associated with the flesh of white color, which does not turn blue and does not blush at the break, unlike the false varieties.
There is another version of the word "white". Since this species has long been considered a delicacy, they serve it to the “whites” table, i.e. honorable people. In addition, white is the opposite of black mushroom (meaning edible, but less valuable nutritional properties).
Useful properties of boletus
Places and time of collection of boletus in Russia
In order to collect the greatest harvest of boletus and not to return home empty-handed, just know a few tricks:
- According to weather conditions, the most suitable summer is moderately hot (up to 26aboutC) in the afternoon and very humid - with plenty of rain; temperature differences and freezing are undesirable.
- Collection sites are largely dependent on climate. If the summer is quite wet, then they are looking for it in the clearings, hills, hills - away from trees. If the summer is dry, then mushrooms are more common in lowlands, near the roots of trees, as well as in dense grass.
- By the time of collection - from mid-summer until the onset of the first frost (until the end of September).
- Gather mainly in coniferous forests (pine trees, spruce forests), but can also be mixed with oaks and birches.
- Finally, preference should be given not to dense forests with a strong shadow, but to poorly shaded areas.
- As for the specific zone, in Russia, porcini mushrooms and boletus are widespread everywhere - from European territory to Western and Eastern Siberia, as well as in the southern regions of the Far East and less often in Chukotka and Kamchatka.
Thus, knowing the places of collection and the rules for distinguishing real mushrooms from false ones will help even a novice mushroom picker to harvest good crops and replenish the menu with these really tasty and nutritious mushrooms.