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Hawthorn is an ornamental fruit shrub, the berries of which have beneficial properties. However, not all varieties are classified as medicinal. Today there are more than 300 species of hawthorn. Each has features and differences not only in appearance and taste, but also in adaptability to certain conditions. To determine the type of shrub for planting, it is important to consider the types of hawthorn with photos and names. After reviewing the detailed information about each of them, you can not be mistaken with the choice and plant a plant that will take root well in a certain climatic zone.
Description of hawthorn
Hawthorn is a spherical shrub that grows in height from 2 to 12 m. Often its size depends on the variety and pruning of branches. Shoots almost always have thorns, so the formation of a bush is carried out in special mittens.
The crown of the shrub is round and wide. Leaves can be of different shapes and sizes, depending on the variety planted: from pinnately lobed to dissected. Fruit color - from yellow to red. The bark is brown, the leaves are green. Closer to autumn, the green mass acquires burgundy shades.
Hawthorn belongs to the Pink family. Types and varieties differ in their decorative qualities. Each has a different color, size and shape of the fruit. It is worth noting that there are differences in terms of productivity, drought resistance, frost resistance. Some species prefer sunny locations, others thrive in shade.
Hawthorn species in Russia
About 50 varieties and species of hawthorn grow on the territory of Russia. Some of the most popular are Siberian and Blood-red. This list also includes:
- Round-leaved - The fruits of this variety are similar to small apples with a sweet taste. The height of the bush is up to 6 m, frost-resistant, can withstand prolonged absence of watering;
- Pinnately cut - the height of the plant can reach 7 m. There are practically no thorns on the bushes. Fruits are small and red in color;
- Pontic - a shrub is planted in a warm area. Fruits are yellow with small white blotches. Bush height - 4-5 m;
- Common - grows up to 7 m in height, has red berries with pleasant taste. Useful decoctions and infusions are prepared from this type;
- Fan - it is distinguished by bright red berries with orange pulp. The maximum height is 6 m. The bushes are fan-shaped with a few thorns. It is recommended to harvest the fruit with gloves.
The bush is famous for its double buds. The bush practically does not produce berries, and if it bears fruit, then the fruits have different shapes and sizes. This variety belongs to the decorative, which is used to decorate the garden area. Paul Scarlet is unpretentious in care, requires regular pruning of branches, occasionally making additional fertilizing.
Types of medicinal hawthorn
Many people know that hawthorn has medicinal properties, however, this effect cannot be achieved from every variety. Medicinal products include:
- Blood red;
Photos and descriptions of each type of hawthorn will help you quickly decide on planting shrubs on the site.
The fruits of this shrub are regularly used to treat mental disorders and diseases of the cardiovascular system. Fruit infusions help cleanse blood vessels, improve blood circulation. This variety is widespread throughout Russia. The blood-red hawthorn is short and bears fruit with medium-sized bright red berries. The main feature of the variety is unpretentious care.
Fruit-based decoctions normalize blood pressure, improve overall well-being. The berries contain a huge amount of vitamins, therefore, with vitamin deficiency, tea from the fruits is able to compensate for the lack of nutrients. Common hawthorn adapts well to various conditions, is frost-resistant, withstands prolonged drought. Fruits are red, shoots with few thorns.
This plant belongs to large-fruited medicinal varieties. Berries are orange-red in color, medium in shape. The flowers are white, neatly collected in lush buds. The main advantage of the shrub is its pleasant taste. Garden hawthorn prefers sunny areas, therefore it is recommended to plant a bush away from plantations that create shade. It is also important to prune regularly so that new shoots are formed. Formation is carried out in early spring until the buds have blossomed.
There are a huge number of species and varieties of hawthorn, so it is important to look at the photos for each shrub. Plants that were included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements are regularly used for planting in summer cottages. These types include: Beads and Kuminov's Gift.
However, the list does not end there. Today, enough varieties have been studied that are perfect for growing practically throughout the entire territory of Russia.
Large-fruited hawthorn varieties
There are a lot of varieties of large-fruited shrubs. Most of the species are softish varieties. The berries of these shrubs taste good.
Common varieties of large-fruited plants include Eastern orange. Fruit weight can reach 20 g. The main advantage is the absence of thorns on the shoots. The fruits are orange in color and taste like apples.
Grows in Siberia and the Far East. The height of the bush can reach 7.5 m, there are thorns on the shoots. The flowers are white, forms burgundy berries, which contain a huge amount of sugar. Hawthorn Maximovich does not require special care. It will be enough for the shrub to carry out preventive pruning of branches.
This species has a golden hue with a small number of thorns on the shoots. Unpretentious in care, needs organic feeding.
The variety was bred in America. The height of the bush can reach 9 m. This variety is decorative, often used in landscape design. Berries are large enough with a pleasant taste.
This species is frost-resistant, however, the plant does not tolerate a prolonged lack of moisture. This variety is very popular throughout Russia. The maximum height of the shrub is 6.5 m. Flowering begins in June. Flowers are white. The fruits are large, they are formed closer to August-September.
Many summer residents note another variety - Timiryazevets. The plant looks like a spreading tree that has a straight trunk. The branches are slightly drooping, the berries are red and medium in size. The plant is unpretentious in care, requires a minimum of activities. Timiryazevets does not need winter shelter, he does not tolerate prolonged drought.
Important! In the absence of rain, it is necessary to organize drip irrigation for the shrubs.
The Daurian variety can be found in the Far East and in some regions of Eastern Siberia. Daurian hawthorn grows up to 7 m high. Shoots with small lilac thorns. Leaves with a pointed end, berries are medium, red. Drought tolerant, frost-resistant.
Delicious varieties of hawthorn
Large-fruited species are often referred to as tasty varieties of hawthorn. However, not every plant that has large berries tastes good. Below are the most popular plant varieties that are regularly eaten and used in various recipes.
The shrub originated in China and is popular in Japan, Korea and other countries. The plant can often be found in the Far East. Refers to thermophilic, does not tolerate severe frosts. Chinese hawthorn is a shrub that has no thorns at all, which is very convenient for harvesting. The leaves are green, the fruits are red with white splashes.
Chinese hawthorn does not require special care. When properly formed, the bush gives a bountiful harvest. The weight of the berry can reach 20 g. The fruit tastes sweet with a slight sourness. Berries have a high keeping quality. They can be stored for more than six months.
This species belongs to the late-ripening varieties of hawthorn. The fruits are large, purple in color. The berries are very tasty, they are often used for making juices. The main advantage of this variety is that ripe fruits do not fall off the tree.
This type is noted by gardeners as the most delicious. The maximum plant height is 11 m. The crown of the shrub is spreading, with pubescent shoots. The pulp of the berries is very juicy with a pleasant aroma. The fruits are sweet, with light notes of sourness. Good to eat raw or processed.
Far Eastern green meat
It belongs to the early varieties, the first berries can be seen in July. Fruit color is black, greenish inside. The berries of the Far Eastern green-meat hawthorn are used for making drinks, consumed fresh.
Among the popular types of hawthorn, Crimean hawthorn can also be noted. The plant grows in the form of a small tree. Based on the name, it can be noted that the shrub comes from the Crimea. Prefers to grow away from other plantings. Produces good fruit when planted on slopes and rocky terrain.
Important! Flowers and berries of the Crimean hawthorn are used to treat many diseases.
Hawthorn varieties for the Moscow region
To grow hawthorn in central Russia and the Moscow region, it is important to know the varieties that will take root well in these regions. Amateur gardeners are advised to pay attention to the following ones:
The plant has geniculate shoots with brown thorns. The leaves are rough, rather large, oblong in shape. The berries are round and medium in size. The color of the fruit is red with small white blotches. Sweet to taste, with a slight sourness. Fruiting of the hawthorn Shamil begins in early October. This type is appreciated for the high taste of the fruit.
More than 10 kg of fruit can be harvested from 1 adult tree. The main advantage of the Shamil species is its low susceptibility to diseases and insects. Shrubs are practically not exposed to fungal infections and other diseases.
This species is very similar to the hawthorn Shamil. However, the plant has an earlier ripening period. Closer to August, many fruits are formed on the bush. Due to their high taste, they are suitable for human consumption.
The shrub has straight shoots of a grayish tint. There are practically no thorns on the branches. Leaves are medium in size, smooth in structure. The berries are cone-shaped with a small amount of white blotches. The pulp of the Lyudmil variety is juicy, with a neutral taste. Such fruits are used for the preparation of infusions and decoctions. The shrub has large berries that have a high keeping quality.
Having considered the types of hawthorn with photos and names, you can quickly decide on the choice for planting in a summer cottage. By choosing a plant for a specific growing region, you can avoid a lot of hassle in the care. It is worth noting that many plants belong to medicinal species. However, in order to achieve a therapeutic effect, it is important not only to plant a bush, but also to properly prepare useful infusions from the fruits.