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Peking cabbage is loved by both consumers and gardeners. This culture has confidently entered the diet of Russians. The appearance of the plant resembles a salad, therefore it is also popularly called salad cabbage. The leaves are collected in a rosette or head of cabbage, which can be impressive in size and length, sometimes up to 50 cm. The color of the leaves of the plant varies from pale yellow to light green. The veins on the leaves are wide and thick, but very juicy.
Chinese cabbage leaves have a pleasant fresh taste. The simplest dish that can be made from a plant very quickly is salad. The vegetable is cut into thin strips and seasoned with lemon juice and vegetable oil. The plant goes well with cheese and meat products in sandwiches. Many healthy and tasty dishes can be prepared from it. And to consume not only fresh, but also stewed, fermented, salted and pickled. Everyone knows the Korean dish kimchi, which is prepared with an abundance of various spices. In the East, this type of cabbage occupies a significant place in the diet of the population.
A lot of useful properties are laid in the nature of Peking cabbage. Therefore, the use of the plant keeps the mind sharp and the vessels elastic. The heart works without interruption, the body's defenses increase, thanks to the high levels of vitamins and trace elements contained in the vegetable. What we miss especially in winter. Peking cabbage is well stored and retains vitamins, which increases the value of the plant in winter and autumn.
For a long time this type of cabbage was an unknown exotic vegetable. Now Russian gardeners and farmers grow this crop on their own. The vegetable is present on store shelves all year round. Gardeners call the plant "Peking" and love it for its unpretentiousness, not capriciousness and for the fact that the culture quickly yields a harvest and not one, but 2 or even 3 crops per season.
Features of care and varieties of Peking cabbage for greenhouses
Happy owners of heated greenhouses can get an early harvest of Peking cabbage. It will be especially in demand in early spring, when fresh vegetables are scarce and too expensive. Therefore, growing crops in greenhouses is a profitable and promising business.
Peking cabbage tolerates significant temperature changes well. But in order not to rely on the vagaries of nature and to get a consistently high yield of the plant, the cultivated crop should provide the correct temperature and lighting.
Peking cabbage seeds have a high germination rate even at temperatures of + 4 + 5 degrees. Seedlings will suffer a drop in temperature if the thermometer drops to -3 degrees. But the ideal temperature for growing and harvesting is +14 to +20 degrees. A decrease and an increase in temperature from extreme values leads to the fact that the plants throw out the arrow and bloom.
A feature of Peking cabbage is the fact that it blooms with a long daylight hours, therefore, the correct development of the heads of the plant will occur with a shortened daylight hours. Blooming "Peking" loses its taste, it is unsuitable for nutrition.
Advice! Peking cabbage is good for compacting other crops in order to save space in the greenhouse.
Plants are friendly with cucumbers and tomatoes. You just need to take care of additional feeding of the vegetable crop so that there is enough nutrition for all the plantings.
Growing Chinese cabbage in a greenhouse is a good solution. You can control the temperature and light conditions, that is, create the conditions necessary for growing a crop. This is especially important for the plant in early spring or late autumn.
Success in growing your crop depends a lot on choosing the right seed for your greenhouse. The main criterion for choosing a plant variety will be the timing of the harvest.
Early varieties of Peking cabbage are capable of producing a crop within 1.5 months after planting. They are suitable for growing crops in a greenhouse in the spring:
- Spring Beauty F1 is a cabbage variety that ripens very quickly and tolerates a lack of light well. The heads of the plant are juicy, white on the cut, weighing up to 2 kg;
- Spring nephritis F1 - a variety of Peking cabbage is resistant to diseases, temperature extremes, especially high temperatures. Does not bloom, is not affected by diseases. The heads of cabbage are large, weighing up to 3 kg, very juicy;
- Vesnianka is a leafy variety, the leaves are juicy, with a high content of vitamin C. 35 days after planting, you can harvest;
- The first F1 vitamins - the variety is suitable for growing both in spring and summer, resistant to flowering and temperature extremes. The vegetable crop is early, the heads of the plant are round and oblong in shape with juicy, crunchy pulp.
- Sentyabrina F1 is a vegetable variety that ripens quickly and has a pleasant taste. On the cut, the color is light green. The weight of the plant's fruits is about 1.5 kg. The variety is resistant to diseases and temperature extremes;
- Autumn jade F1 is a plant variety that forms a large elongated head of cabbage, up to 50-60 cm in size, weighing up to 3 kg. The color of the fruit of the vegetable culture is bright green;
- Autumn Beauty F1 is a cold-resistant plant variety with heads weighing up to 2.5 kg. On the cut, they are slightly yellow, the upper leaves are rich green.
- The Beijing Express is suitable for growing plants in the open field, but it gives a particularly high yield in a greenhouse. Light green heads of vegetable crops are elongated, very juicy, weighing about 2 kg. The variety is zoned for Siberia, the Moscow region, the Urals. It tolerates adverse climatic conditions well;
- Martha is an early ripening variety of cabbage, it takes only 40 days to fully ripen. Does not suffer from lack of lighting, is resistant to the ejection of peduncles. Heads of cabbage plants weighing up to 1 kg.
Attention! Spring and autumn varieties are grown in their own season. Spring Peking cabbage should not be planted in the fall.
Otherwise, the heads of vegetable crops will give arrows and the crop will be spoiled.
Pekingka loves light and fertile soil. If there were cases of plant diseases in the greenhouse, then the soil must be treated with steam, spilled with copper sulfate (weak solution) or potassium permanganate. But too light soils dry out quickly, and heavy ones lead to the development of diseases. Therefore, the most suitable soils with a medium composition, neutral in acidity. Peking cabbage in the greenhouse is planted after tomatoes, cucumbers, courgettes, onions and legumes.
A vegetable crop is planted in a heated greenhouse at the beginning of March, in April, if the greenhouse is not heated. Plant seeds are planted in furrows following the recommended planting pattern. In the aisles, a distance of 30-40 cm is usually left. Per 1 sq. m of prepared soil take 2 g of cabbage seeds. Sow them, not deepening too much, by 1-1.5 cm, then moisten well.
Until the emergence of plant shoots in the greenhouse, the temperature must be kept at least +20 degrees. As soon as shoots have appeared, the temperature is lowered to +10 degrees for a period of 5-7 days. Then, for the full development and ovary of vegetable heads, a temperature of no more than +20 degrees in the daytime is required, at night it should not fall below +15 degrees.
Slightly grown seedlings of a plant should be thinned out, leaving the most robust plants. At this stage, 10 cm is left between the plants.After a week of planting, they are thinned again, leaving 30-40 cm between crops.
The seedling method is also suitable for planting "Peking". So? farmers get an even earlier harvest. But the culture reacts very badly to transplanting, so it is recommended to plant seeds in separate containers, peat cups or peat tablets. Before planting, the soil is spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate. And sow 3 seeds. The sprouts appear very quickly, literally in 4-5 days.
Unviable sprouts are removed. Regular watering is carried out when the soil dries, excess moisture can lead to the development of rot. After three weeks, the seedlings will have 2 pairs of true leaves, they are ready for transplanting into the ground.
Regular care consists in maintaining the required temperature in the greenhouse, regular watering. Water as the top layer of the soil dries up, preventing complete drying out. Too frequent watering should be avoided, as excess moisture and thickening of crops leads to the development of diseases.
Advice! Excessive feeding should not be carried away, since this culture is especially prone to the accumulation of nitrates.
During the season, you can carry out 2 top dressing: organic and mineral substances. Peking reacts well to feeding with infusion of slurry, chicken droppings, infusion obtained from green mass.
Mineral fertilizers are best applied in autumn when preparing the land in the greenhouse. m make double superphosphate (1 tbsp. l.) and potassium sulfate (2 tbsp. l.). When planting, add superphosphate (2 tbsp. L.), Urea (1 tsp.), Wood ash (1 glass).
Pests and protection from them
Peking cabbage is very fond of a variety of pests, which are sometimes quite difficult to cope with. Special damage to plants is caused by: cruciferous flea, slugs.
In order not to use a variety of chemicals in pest control, it is better to follow preventive measures that will protect your plants from the harmful effects of pests.
- The cruciferous flea does not live in the low temperatures of early spring, late summer, or early fall. Thus, all you need to do is comply with the landing dates.
- You can treat young plants with ash.
- Observe the crop rotation. Do not plant Chinese cabbage after all types of cabbage, daikon, radish. The pest hibernates in the soil. Therefore, there is always a threat to the "Peking".
- The culture is not affected by the cruciferous flea if the plantings of cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, garlic are compacted with it.
If all else fails, use heavy artillery: Iskra, Inta-Vir, Aktara.
Cleaning and storage
Heads of cabbage are cut for storage when they are hardened. Not all varieties are suitable for storage. As a rule, spring varieties are used immediately for consumption. But autumn varieties can be stored.
To do this, each head of cabbage is wrapped in cling film, and then in a newspaper. So, Chinese cabbage is stored for a long time, more than 4-5 months at a temperature slightly above zero degrees.
Growing Chinese cabbage in greenhouses is a very profitable business and can become a source of constant income for someone. For experienced gardeners, this is a way to provide themselves and their families with a healthy, vitamin-rich product. Novice gardeners, observing simple agrotechnical techniques, can easily cope with the cultivation of a crop, get a delicious vegetable that diversifies the nutritious diet.