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Determinant tomatoes: shaping, pinching + video

Determinant tomatoes: shaping, pinching + video


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When purchasing tomato seeds, many farmers prefer determinant varieties. Such tomatoes are excellent for growing in open and protected areas of soil, have high yields and are able to independently regulate their growth. The last of the listed qualities is, in some cases, not only an advantage, but also a disadvantage, since early edging can reduce the yield of the crop. To prevent such an unfavorable development of events, you can use the correct formation of tomato bushes. The formation of determinant tomatoes includes a set of activities based on the use of pinching, pinching and some other manipulations. You can get acquainted in more detail with possible schemes for the formation of bushes and the rules for their implementation below in the article.

Features of determinant tomatoes

Having decided to grow determinant varieties of tomatoes on your site, you need to understand that they are all subdivided into several types in accordance with the characteristics of agricultural technology. So, experts distinguish the following types of determinant tomatoes:

Superdeterminant varieties

This type of plant includes undersized tomato varieties. Superdeterminate tomatoes form bushes no more than 70 cm high. Stepchildren are formed on them in small numbers. When 3-4 inflorescences appear, the main shoot stops growing. The advantage of such varieties is the amicable ripening of fruits, however, the crop yield is relatively low and already in the middle of summer such plants can only be a decoration of the site, but in no way a source of fresh vegetables.

When growing super determinant tomatoes, the cultivator does not require much care. The resulting stepchildren do not develop quickly enough, so they may not be removed at all. There is also no need to pinch the bushes, since they stop growing early on their own. In the process of caring for plants, the gardener can only speed up the fruiting process by removing the lower leaves of the plant. It is rational to use this method of forming superdeterminant bushes when growing crops in a greenhouse in early spring. At the same time, it will be possible to get the first harvest of vegetables early enough and to empty the greenhouse for new crops at the beginning of summer.

Among the tomatoes of superdeterminant varieties, the most famous are Naples, Junior, Malyshok.

Semi-determinant tomatoes

The semi-determinant category includes tomatoes, the bushes of which can reach a height of 1.5 m. These plants are also characterized by an independent growth arrest, however, in some cases, this sign does not appear.

Semi-determinant tomatoes on a long main stem are capable of forming ovaries in large numbers, as a result of which a high yield of the crop as a whole is ensured. However, in favorable greenhouse conditions, the growing season of plants can last long enough and the time of independent growth of a tomato bush may not be enough to obtain the maximum amount of yield. That is why, in a greenhouse, it is recommended to form semi-determinant tomatoes into one stem in a stepwise manner or into two full-fledged stems.

In open field conditions, the growing season of crop growth is limited by atmospheric temperature indicators, therefore, when growing semi-determinant tomatoes, it is quite enough to form one fruiting main stem. For an accelerated harvest in unprotected conditions, the bushes are pinched with the approach of autumn.

Among the most famous semi-determinant varieties of tomato are "Alliance", "Volovye Heart", "Red Arrow" and some others.

Determinant varieties

Varieties of conventional determinant tomatoes are distinguished by high fertility, which can be achieved only with a competent approach to the formation of a bush. Tomatoes of the determinant type are considered medium-sized. Their height can reach 1.5 m. Such tomatoes can be effectively grown both in open and in protected areas of the ground. When forming them, you can use several different formation schemes, but the most productive is the method with two or three stems. Illustrative schemes for the formation of tomato bushes according to this principle can be seen in the picture below.

Standard varieties

Standard varieties of tomatoes are distinguished by a very compact bush, which not only completes its growth on its own, but also regulates the number and branching of the formed stepchildren. It is very easy to care for such tomatoes by ensuring regular watering and feeding.

Thus, special attention should be paid to the formation of bushes when growing tomatoes of the determinant and semi-determinant type. To do this, depending on the growing conditions and personal preferences, the farmer can choose one of the proposed schemes below. There is no need to form standard and superdeterminant tomatoes at all, since their agrotechnical qualities do not allow them to grow very much. Growing these tomatoes can be a great option for beginners and busy gardeners.

Schemes for the formation of determinant tomatoes

Analyzing the characteristics of various types of determinant tomatoes, it becomes clear that there can be no single recommended scheme for their formation. The choice of the scheme depends on the specific characteristics of the plant and the conditions of its cultivation. So, for varieties of the determinant type, you can use the schemes described below.

Formation into one stem

It is rational to use the formation of tomatoes in one stem for semi-determinant varieties in the greenhouse. The method allows you to get a high yield of vegetables and, if necessary, regulate the growth of a tomato bush. There are several ways to form tomatoes into one stem:

The classic way

With this method of forming determinant tomatoes in a greenhouse, farmers remove all lateral shoots (stepchildren), leaving one main fruiting stem. With the arrival of the autumn cold, the plants in the greenhouse are pinched in order for the existing fruits to ripen sooner. The scheme of such formation of tomatoes in the classical way can be seen below in the picture "A".

Scheme with partial removal of stepsons

This method of formation involves the preservation of several stepsons on the main stem of the plant. After the fruits are tied on the left side shoots, they need to be pinched. Thus, the farmer will receive a tall tomato bush, consisting of one main fruiting stem and several fruit clusters on pinched shoots (diagram B). This method of forming plants of the determinant type allows you to increase the yield of the crop.

Stepwise formation of tomato bushes

In this way, it is recommended to form semi-determinant tomatoes in a greenhouse, where favorable conditions for the fruiting of the culture remain for a long time period. The formation of bushes in this way allows you to correctly regulate the fruiting process of the crop and timely stop the growth of the main shoot.

With a stepwise formation, tomato bushes are regularly pinned, but at the same time, one lateral shoot is left in the middle of the main trunk of the plant. At a time when the saved stepson begins to actively bear fruit, pinch the main shoot. In this way, the formation of a semi-determinant bush in the greenhouse can be continued until the end of the growing season. An exaggerated scheme of such a formation is given below.

Important! It is rational to use the schemes proposed above only for semi-determinant tomatoes.

Formation of tomatoes in 2 and 3 stems

The use of two- and three-stem formation is recommended for medium-sized determinant tomatoes that are prone to self-completion of growth. The formation process consists in removing only some of the stepsons. So, when growing tomatoes on the main trunk, 2-3 of the lowest stepson must be removed. Above, one or two of the strongest lateral shoots are left, which, along with the main stem, will grow, forming leaves and ovaries. With this pinching, you can get the maximum yield from the determinant type tomatoes. You can see the formation scheme in 2 and 3 stems in the picture below.

You can see the process of forming determinant tomatoes into one or more stems in a greenhouse in the video:

Formation of superdeterminant and standard varieties

The proposed schemes are not suitable for these determinant types, but this does not mean that the process of their cultivation can be “left to chance”. The formation of superdeterminate tomatoes consists in the removal of the lower leaves of the plant. By removing excess greens from the stem of tomatoes, you can relieve stress and speed up the ripening process.

Basic principles of tomato formation

The process of forming tomatoes may include a certain list of manipulations that must be carried out correctly. So, we will try to describe in detail some of the fundamental principles of the formation of tomato bushes.

Stepping

Tomato grazing is the procedure for removing lateral shoots that form in the leaf axils. Such shoots consume a lot of micronutrients for their full development, which is often unreasonable. That is why experienced farmers, when the first stepsons appear, tend to remove them. Remove the lateral shoot by pinching it off with your fingers or cut it off with scissors. In this case, it is necessary to leave a small piece of the shoot (stump) so that a new stepson does not form in this place from now on.

It is recommended to carry out grazing of determinant tomatoes in the morning hours, since during this period the plant is maximally saturated with moisture. At the same time, damage on the trunk will dry up throughout the day, and all kinds of viruses and fungi on their surface will no longer pose a significant threat to plant health.

In order to prevent diseases that are especially common in a greenhouse, some plant protection measures must be observed during pinching. All tools and gloves of the farmer must be regularly treated with a potassium permanganate disinfectant solution.

Grassing tomatoes is carried out regularly, starting from the moment the bushes adapt to new conditions after planting in the ground until the end of the growing season. Recommended frequency of the event: 1 time in 10 days. Regular pinching will direct the flow of micronutrients from the root of the plant directly to its fruits, accelerate the ripening process of vegetables and reduce the density of plantings in the greenhouse, thereby improving air circulation and preventing the development of diseases.

Topping

The pinching procedure is carried out in the process of forming tomatoes into one stem according to the above proposed schemes. For other determinant varieties of tomatoes, pinching is carried out at the end of the growing season on the eve of autumn.

It is also recommended to pinch the top of the bush in the early morning. When carrying out the manipulation, it is necessary to remove the brush on the main or lateral shoot so that 1-2 leaves free from ovaries remain higher along the trunk. They will allow moisture and nutrients to circulate properly through the stems, supplying energy to all the vegetative organs of the plant.

The formation of determinant-type tomatoes may involve not only pinching the tops of the stems, but also pinching the inflorescences. When growing semi-determinant and determinant tomatoes, it is rational to remove the first flowering clusters that form, since they require a lot of energy and "inhibit" the formation of new ovaries.

Removing leaves

Leaves, like stepchildren, require a certain amount of nutrients for their development. To save plant resources, gardeners remove the lower leaves on the main trunk and left stepchildren, since they do not perform an important function. Leaves should be removed by cutting or pinching. The manipulation must be carried out very carefully so as not to damage the skin of the plant. Remove the lower leaves of tomatoes at the same time as pinching. You can remove 1 to 3 sheets at a time.

Garter

Tying the bushes is an integral part of the tomato shaping procedure. You can tie the determinant-type tomatoes in the greenhouse to the trellis or twine to the frame of the building. It is impossible to make tight knots on the trunks. It is preferable to wrap the thread around the trunk of the tomato without rigidly fixing it.

Conclusion

When purchasing a determinant tomato variety, you must be ready to form a bush in a certain way. Varieties of the most common schemes for the formation of tomatoes are offered for the choice of the farmer and, for sure, their description will be useful not only for beginners, but also for experienced gardeners, because many farmers form tomatoes in their garden incorrectly, thereby reducing the crop yield without knowing it. Compliance with the rules of formation allows you to get the maximum return of the fruits from the plants, reduce the likelihood of their infection with various ailments and facilitate the care of the plantings.


Watch the video: How to Properly Prune Determinate Tomatoes for Greater Yeald. Gardening Online (September 2022).


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