After the cow has calved, it takes about 14 days for the animal to recover. At this time, she needs specific care. It should also be borne in mind that calving does not always go without problems. In the next month, it is better to closely monitor the condition of the animal. The milking procedure will take a total of about 3 months. Therefore, it cannot be said that after calving all the hassle ends.
Features of the condition of the cow after calving
Calving is a physiological process and does not normally require human attention. Intervention is only necessary for complications. After the calf is born, the cow must lick it. This triggers the milk flow and the newborn receives a stimulating massage.
After calving, until the afterbirth comes out, the cow will have contractions. She needs to expel the placenta. The uterus will be swollen for some time after the end of the process, but then it will return to normal.
Within 2 weeks after calving, the cow will have lochia. At first, the mucus is brown in color, with caked blood, gradually they will become lighter and more transparent. If the lochia liquefies a little and becomes an even brown color, the cow has postpartum complications.
Udder swelling will also subside after 2 weeks. The softened pelvic ligaments will also heal in about 14 days. In general, within half a month, the cow should be in a normal physiological state.
Usually the calf is not left under the cow, but sometimes it can be a way to correct postpartum problems.
What to do after calving a cow
Half an hour after the placenta leaves, sweetened or salted water is soldered to the cow. You can drink amniotic fluid. In veterinary pharmacies today you can find special electrolytes for cows after calving.
Attention! Since it can take several hours between the birth of the calf and the release of the placenta, water can be given to the animal without waiting for the end of the process.
Hay is a dry product and can be placed in the trough in advance. The cow will eat when she wants.
After the placenta is released, the integrity of the placenta is checked. Further, all dirty litter is cleaned, which is destroyed along with biowaste. The stall is lined with fresh straw. The latter is more convenient to use, as it will not harm the cow when eaten and it allows the liquid to pass down well.
You need to milk a cow for the first time 30-40 minutes after calving. The udder skin is preliminarily cleansed of physiological fluids. The resulting colostrum is immediately soldered to the calf.
After the placenta emerges, the entire rear of the cow is washed: genitals, udder, hind legs and tail. It is a good idea to clean the entire cow.
This is what the afterbirth looks like after calving.
How to care for a cow after calving
The calving cow must be monitored. The development of some pathological processes takes several days. It is necessary to track the dynamics of animal recovery.
Particular attention is paid to the udder. It is lubricated daily with moisturizer or ointment to restore tissue elasticity. Before milking, the mammary gland is washed with warm water. After milking, the nipples are lubricated with ointment. The milking regimen is observed and the animal is gradually distributed.
On the first day after calving, the cow is given only water and quality hay. Sometimes dried grass can be mixed with hay. Within 3 days, in addition to hay, 1-1.5 kg of concentrates are also fed:
- wheat bran;
- sunflower seed meal;
- compound feed.
All concentrates are given in the form of a chatterbox.
From the 4th day after calving, they gradually begin to introduce juicy feed. By the 12th day, she is transferred to a full-fledged diet.
Attention! Switching to a full-fledged diet at an earlier date can cause udder disease.
Feeding rates depend on several factors:
- fatness of the cow;
- milk yield;
- fat content of milk;
- lactation time.
The more an animal gives milk, the more feed it needs. As a percentage, the structure of the diet looks like this:
- hay - 20-25;
- juicy feed - 40-50;
- concentrates - 30-35.
On average, per 100 kg of weight, a cow needs 2 kg of hay and 8 kg of succulent feed. Concentrates are given taking into account the milk yield: 100-400 g for each liter of milk.
The frequency of feeding depends on productivity. Low-yielding animals, giving 4000 thousand kg per year, are fed 2 times a day at the beginning and end of lactation. High-yielding and new-calf - 3-4 times a day. The feed is set immediately after milking in a certain sequence: concentrates-juicy-coarse.
Attention! Both milking and feeding take place at the same time.
Good quality hay during dry periods is an important factor for successful calving
Breaking and further milking
The lactation period includes 4 phases:
- calving and recovery - 2-3 weeks;
- milk production - 2-3 months;
- peak / high - before the beginning of the 6th month of a new pregnancy;
If the calf is taken immediately after calving, the cow is milked 4-6 times a day from the first day. Frequent milking with udder massage can also help relieve swelling. The procedure is carried out strictly at certain hours and at regular intervals. Therefore, it is better to stop at 4 or 6 milking times. High-yielding cows are milked more often than low-yielding cows. If the udder is overfilled, milk may flow spontaneously.
The milking phase begins after the animals are transferred to a full-fledged diet. It is carried out in order to find out the maximum productivity of a fresh cow. For this, the "advance payment method" is used. That is, depending on the productivity of a particular animal, 1-3 feed is added to the diet. units Increase the feed until the cow stops responding with increased milk yield.
During this phase, highly productive cows are milked 3-4 times a day. Low-yielding - no more than 3. At the peak of lactation, animals "come out" about the 3rd month after calving. Milking twice a day is permissible if the cow gives no more than 10 liters of milk per day.
In the case of a successful calving, only two problems can arise: swelling of the udder and mastitis due to too high productivity. The former often goes away on its own, but the animal can be helped as well. To do this, at each milking, the udder is massaged using emollient ointments.
With high productivity and insufficient milking frequency, the cow may develop mastitis. In this case, its appearance provokes the spontaneous flow of milk. The udder becomes coarse and inflamed.
With a dysfunctional hotel, there are a little more options:
- delayed afterbirth;
- prolapse of the uterus;
- postpartum paresis;
- subinvolution of the uterus;
- postpartum sepsis;
- birth canal injuries.
The first 4 diseases are almost always a direct consequence of the violation of the conditions of keeping and feeding.
The maximum break between calving and the release of the placenta in a cow is 6 hours. After the expiration of this time, the afterbirth is considered delayed. The causes of the disease are uterine atony, edema of the chorionic villi or inflammatory hyperemia. Predisposing factors are errors in the conditions of keeping and feeding, as well as trauma to the birth canal.
Delayed afterbirth can be:
The type of disease is established on the basis of vaginal and general examinations, as well as according to anamnesis. If the placenta is delayed for more than 6 hours after calving, you must invite a veterinarian.
Sometimes, as a result of a dysfunctional calving, the afterbirth has to be removed manually
Prolapse of the uterus
Occurs in case of difficult calving, trauma or dryness of the birth canal, or delayed release of the fetus. Provoking factors:
- improper diet;
- overstretching of the uterus;
- very large fruit.
The prognosis depends on how long the uterus is outside the cow and the degree of mucosal damage. In the air, the organ swells very quickly. The mucous membrane is damaged against the walls of the stall, the floor and other surrounding objects. The more damage, the worse the prognosis.
All possible factors leading to sepsis after calving: a prolapsed uterus, dirty bedding, and sharp glands
Outwardly, it is characterized by the fact that the cow after calving cannot stand up. The limbs lose sensitivity. Signs of paralysis of the gastrointestinal tract and other internal organs appear later. Usually occurs in high-yielding cows 2-3 days after calving. Concentrated feeding is believed to be the trigger these days.
Subinvolution of the uterus
Involution is the return of an organ to its previous size. Subinvolution - slowing down the restoration of the previous size of the organ.
The delay in the involution of the uterus after calving occurs due to the lack of active exercise during pregnancy and an inadequate diet. It is often accompanied by dysfunction of internal organs.
With subinvolution, a cow is observed:
- atony of the uterus;
- delay of lochia or their allocation in small portions;
- 4 or more days after calving, the release of brown liquid lochia;
- increase in the term of allocation of lochia.
Due to the intoxication of the body with the decay products of rotting lochia, the cow develops mastitis. There is also a violation of the reproductive cycles.
Treatment should be carried out by a veterinarian, since ergot preparations are used in the treatment of subinvolution of the uterus. Lochia is pumped out with a vacuum pump. This procedure must be carried out carefully so as not to damage the uterus and vagina further.
There are 3 types: pyemia, septicemia and septicopyemia. It occurs as a result of the penetration of various cocci or clostridia into the bloodstream. Penetration routes:
- violation of the integrity of soft tissues of any type;
- difficult or abnormal calving;
- emphysema of the fetus;
- prolapse of the uterus;
- delayed afterbirth.
In cows of 3 types, pyemia prevails, that is, sepsis with metastases. Brown putrid exudate accumulates in the uterus, the walls thicken. Overall body temperature fluctuates.
Birth canal injuries
Injuries occur when calving is difficult or when a calf is oversized. They can also be inflicted by staff helping the cow to calve. The main symptom of trauma is bleeding. You cannot do without a veterinarian when treating an injury. The actions of an inexperienced owner are more likely to be harmful. There are no preventive measures in this case either.
Stretching the calf forcibly often results in trauma to the birth canal
To relieve swelling and prevent mastitis after calving and before each milking, the udder of the cow is massaged using an emollient and moisturizing ointment. Skin moisturizers can be purchased ready-made in the store. The Zorka ointment, designed specifically for moisturizing the skin of the udder, has long been well established.
When the placenta is detained, it is better even before the expiration of the maximum period, the cow needs to cleanse the external genitals. Oxytocin is used epidurally at a dose of 20-30 U. Subcutaneously 0.5% proserpine solution or 0.1% carbacholine solution. These drugs contribute to the contraction of the uterus and the removal of the placenta.
In case of prolapse of the uterus, you must immediately invite a veterinarian. The cow owner will not be able to correct the organ on his own. Before the arrival of the veterinarian, the uterus must be protected from unnecessary damage. To do this, the uterus is first washed with salted warm water, then irrigated with a disinfecting cold solution and wrapped in a sheet. You can use a large new plastic bag if you have one at hand. Also, the owner must prepare a ramp where the cow can be placed. Before the arrival of the veterinarian, they need to be done only for reasons of saving time. Further on the owner of the cow does not depend, since alone and without anesthesia, the uterus, he will not be able to correct.
In case of paresis, the owner needs to cover the sacral area of the cow with something warm. This is usually straw under the burlap. Before wrapping, the lower back and sacrum are thoroughly rubbed and massaged. As a preventive measure, the animal is not given a lot of concentrates during the dry period. The sweetened water is soldered.
Subinvolution is easier to prevent than to cure. This is not difficult for the owner, since the main method is to provide active exercise for the cow. After calving, amniotic fluid or salted warm water with bran is soldered to the animal. Newborn calves are kept under a cow for 2-3 days.
It is difficult to cure pyemia on your own, since a complex of procedures with the use of various medications is required. The owner is able to prevent postpartum sepsis:
- provide a complete diet;
- observe hygiene during and after calving;
- promptly treat postpartum complications.
If pyemia could not be avoided, the prescribed course of treatment is maintained completely.
For local treatment of mastitis, you can use special syringes with antibiotics
If the cow has calved safely, the owner has practically no serious trouble. To prevent pathological calving and postpartum complications, it is necessary to follow the rules of feeding and keeping cattle.