House and garden

Organic fertilizers: characteristics of species, terms and rules of use


Organic fertilizers contain the main nutrition elements of garden, horticultural and indoor crops, mainly in the form of organic compounds well absorbed by plants. Such fertilizers can be represented by manure, compost, peat, straw, green components, silt or sapropel, complex compounds, industrial and household waste.

The value of organic fertilizers

The importance of fertilizers of organic origin is difficult to underestimate. Such natural types of top dressing are enriched with nitrogen, phosphorus-potassium composition, calcium and other nutrients that are able to favorably affect the growth and development of crops, and also have a positive effect on the properties of the earth. The stimulating effect can be enhanced, if using liquid forms and finely divided powders.

How to make chicken manure fertilizer

Liquid and other types of organic food

In the conditions of home gardening and gardening, as well as indoor floriculture, the use of fertilizers of organic origin can be carried out in different forms, which depend on the composition and purpose.

Bird droppings

It is one of the most concentrated organic fertilizers. Fertilizer quality of bird droppings is higher than that of manure, and the speed of action is comparable to mineral fertilizers. Bird droppings are composted with soil in a ratio of 1: 3 or 1: 4. About 150 kg of concentrated and highly effective organics for top dressing can be obtained from 150 kg of raw manure.

Cow and horse manure

Most often, cattle manure is used in household plots. If we compare horse manure with the more common cow manure, we can see that it is drier and lighter, decomposes quickly and contains more nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Horse manure rate is 5.0 kg per square meterand cow - approximately 6.0-8.0 kg / sq.m.

Compost mass

Composts are the result of decomposition of any organic matter under the influence of the natural activity of microorganisms. The standard rate for composting is about 3.0-4.0 kg per square meter garden row or near-stem circle of garden plantations and berry bushes.

Peat high, transitional and lowland

The composition of peat is represented by plant residues and minerals. The remains of plant origin, which are located on the surface of swampy water, are peat of the upper type. Layers closer to groundwater - lowland. Between the upland and lowland is a layer of transitional peat. Peat should be evenly distributed over the surface and digged with the soil on a bayonet shovel. The application rate is approximately 20-30 liters per square meter of area.

Sawdust and bark

To improve the properties of the soil on the site, crushed wood bark and sawdust are often quite often introduced. These natural substances are rich in various trace elements.which are necessary for the growth and development of most plants. Shredded bark of conifers is in demand as the main substrate for the cultivation of epiphytic plants, orchids and bromeliads, and also serves as a baking powder for light soil mixtures.

Ash use

Ash is a natural phosphate-potassium fertilizer and contains the main nutrient components that are readily soluble in water, which helps to improve their absorption by plant crops. The ash contains about thirty micro and macro elements. The approximate application rate is approximately 200-300 g per square meter. Agrotechnical requirements do not recommend the use of wood ash as an organic fertilizer on lands with a high level of alkalinity.

Sidereal cultures

Sideral plants are planted in open areas of land and as a useful adjacent crop. Subsequent incorporation of green manure crops into the soil improves its structural characteristics, enriches the earth with nitrogen, and inhibits the growth of weeds. The most popular siderat plants are legumes and cereals, as well as cruciferous crops, the sowing of which is carried out in the warm season.

Complex organic fertilizers

This type of organics is a complex fertilizer consisting of organic substances, chemical or mineral compounds. Obtaining nutritional compositions is due to the process of processing manure or manure through biological fermentation. The result is fertilizers that vary in composition and effectiveness.

Sex as a fertilizer

Sex or chaff is the garbage that comes from threshing household plants. The composition is represented by small, light falling parts of spikes and legumes and may look like fragments of ears, parts of floral and covering films, pods, scraps stem part. As fertilizers it is used as a part of compost mass.

Sludge application

Fine-grained and soft siltIt contains mineral and organic substances obtained from the bottom of a watercourse and reservoir. Most often, such organics are used in the conditions of home gardening and fresh gardening. The rate of application of pure sapropel sludge is about 2.0-8.0 kg per square meter. Sludge should be applied during spring or autumn digging of the soil.

Bone flour

It is a by-product of the processing of carcasses of any farm animals and contains a large number of different biologically active components that are widely used in crop production. It is applied a couple of times a year. During autumn digging, 100 g is applied, and in the spring it is enough to add about 50 g per square meter, immediately before sowing and planting.

Vermicompost

Vermicompost is a highly effective and very popular type of organics in our country, which is known to many as biohumus. Such the product is obtained from the processing of organic waste by earthworms and bacterial flora. Application to the soil significantly improves the structure of the soil, as well as its basic water-physical properties. It is allowed to use vermicompost both for making during the process of digging, and for mulching garden and ornamental crops.

Herbal infusions

For the preparation of herbal infusions, it is best to use dioecious nettle, quinoa, and the aerial part of dandelion, but any other weed harvested can be used. Water flooded grass is left to ferment. Before watering the garden plants, the concentrated solution must be diluted with water. One part of the concentrate should account for nine parts of water.

How to apply organic matter

Industrial Engineering

Domestic producers have launched the production of several types of organic fertilizers, which have proven themselves in the conditions of homestead farming and small-scale farming. In addition to well-known gardeners and gardeners Baikal EM-1, Gumi and Biomaster, of interest are modern formulations for top dressing.

Title

Composition

Application

"Humat-universal"

Optimum ratio of essential nutrients, high humate content, trace elements

Refueling the soil and any substrate for growing seedlings, plant nutrition

Lignogumat

High salt content of humic acids

Refueling the soil and any substrate for growing seedlings, plant nutrition

Supercompost

Bird droppings, cattle, industrial waste

Making during digging, adding to nutrient substrates

"Tulip"

Peat at the stage of active decomposition in 20% or more

Liquid type fertilizer for greenhouse crops

Togum

85% - organic and biologically active substances

Refueling the soil and any substrate for growing seedlings, plant nutrition

"Ecoplodogumus"

Complex complex of components of variable composition

Making during digging, adding to nutrient substrates

Features of the use of organics

Fertilizers of organic origin can be applied on all types of soil, taking into account soil characteristics, as well as rotation of crop rotation.

Black earth

This type of soil requires the introduction of manure or compost at the rate of one and a half tons for each hundredth of the landing area. It is also recommended that once every five to six years sowing and embedding in the soil sidereal crops.

Sandy soil

Sandy soils poor in humus especially need regular fertilizer application. Wood ash is introduced in the spring, based on the calculation of liter per square meter. It is also necessary to improve the soil composition every two to three years with manure and bird droppings. A good result is the alternation of industrial production organics with natural compounds.

Alumina and heavy soils

Clay and heavy lands need to be regularly nourished and their composition improved by the application of any fertilizers of organic origin. To this end, it’s best to alternate between organics of plant and animal origin, and also periodically use any highly effective and modern preparations based on humates.

In indoor floriculture

In the conditions of indoor floriculture, almost any kind of organics is widely used, but it is completely inexpedient to use sheep and pig manure. For feeding decorative leafy and flowering crops, it is desirable to give preference to ready-made liquid formsas well as solutions based on wood ash and nettle infusion.

When organic fertilizers can harm

Despite the apparent harmlessness, many types of fertilizing, especially with uncontrolled or improper use, can adversely affect the quality indicators of the resulting crop. Fresh manure often causes plant death, and excessive peat makes the soil "greasy" and low-yielding.

Types of Organic Fertilizers

Any organic fertilizers, when used correctly, are an effective means of improving the nutritional characteristics of the soil, increase the yield and make it better.