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Balsamin: features of cultivation and care

Balsamin: features of cultivation and care


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Depending on the type, the balsamines can be either perennial or annual. They are characterized by a straight stem that can grow up to 50 cm, rather fleshy leaves of a lanceolate or oval shape, the color is green, purple-bronze. The flowers are located inside the axils of the leaves, usually pink or red, in hybrid varieties there are a variety of colors except yellow and blue.

Balsamins begin to bloom at the end of spring and continue until late autumn. However, in the presence of favorable conditions, flowering can last throughout the year.

Care

In general, balsams do not require particularly careful care, are resistant to dry microclimate. They belong to heat-loving plants, drafts are harmful to them, they love light. Many domestic species tolerate short periods of drying out of the soil. At the same time, overheating and high humidity have a negative effect on them.

They take root well in the shade of trees, and even those planted on the north side will develop quite safely, as they are adapted to grow in the shade. In the cold season, balsams must be placed in a well-lit place with an air temperature of approx. 15 °, moderate watering required. In summer, you can plant in the garden, but in the fall again return back to the windowsill. Such a planting is best done in July, then the plant can better acclimatize.

Landing

Balsamins, purchased for planting in the garden, are planted after the end of return frosts. A hole is dug into which fertilizers and compost are poured. Seedlings not yet extracted from the pot should be watered. Having pulled out the plant, it is necessary to straighten the roots, trying not to shake the ground from them. The depth of the hole into which the balsam is planted should approximately coincide with the height of the pot in which it grew earlier. The pit is filled with earth, rammed to provide the necessary planting strength, mulched.


In order for the balsamins to become more bushy, the tops of the seedlings should be trimmed or pinched. Faded inflorescences are not removed, very soon they will be replaced by new ones.

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The soil

Balsam, which are bred at home, need to provide a light, loose soil. It should be nutritious, but in moderation, as too highly nutritious soil will lead to intensive growth of leaves and at the same time negatively affect flowering. With regard to friability, it is also better to adhere to the golden mean. Optimum for balsamines are slightly acidic soils, consisting of equal parts of humus, compost, perlite and turf. You can also take 2 parts of sheet land, to which mix 1 part of sand and peat.

Lighting and temperature

This plant loves sunlight, placed in the shade is only on particularly hot days. In the shade, the balsam bush will grow better in height, but flowering will become less plentiful. In winter, additional lighting may become relevant, balsamins have no periods of rest, and a lack of light has a bad effect on flowering.

The summer temperature regime is in the range of 20 ° -22 °, in winter the temperature should not be allowed to drop below 13 °, and for species with variegated leaves the minimum is 15 °.

Humidity and watering

Since balsam is quite hygroscopic, in hot weather it needs to be provided with moist soil, thus, in summer, watering should be very plentiful, and in winter more moderate. At temperatures above 20 ° it is recommended to spray twice a day, but so that the flowers remain dry. Watering is carried out around the circumference of the pot, avoiding contact with the root neck. We must not forget about the timely discharge of accumulated water from the pan.

For watering, it is recommended to use soft water, previously defended. Watering with hard water can cause limescale on the ground, and the plant itself will look sick. In this case, remove the topsoil and pour a new one. In order for the root system to "breathe" better, from time to time it is necessary to loosen the surface, capturing approx. 1 cm of land.

Features of growing garden balsam

Top dressing

It is required from spring to early fall. Every two weeks they are fed with a complex fertilizer in the amount of a half dose. Blooming winter balsam can also be fed after the buds appear. It is better to use for this purpose a mineral solution of a weak concentration, which is added to the soil after irrigation.

During the flowering period, top dressing should contain potassium with phosphorus, but not nitrogen at all. Sick plants should not be fed; a plant transplanted to a new place begins to be fed only after 3 weeks.

Breeding

Balsam is propagated by cuttings and seeds. For propagation by cuttings, a healthy shoot is selected, cut off, and then placed in a container with water or moist soil. As a rule, cuttings take root pretty soon, then they need to be dived into small pots (with a diameter of about 10 cm).

During the winter months, it is best to place the pot in a room with good light access and a temperature of approx. 15 °, in the spring to land.

Balsam grown from spring cuttings can bloom in the same summer, summer specimens will bloom in the fall and continue to bloom throughout the winter. When rooting occurs in the fall, the plant will need additional heat and light so that the cuttings safely avoid the risk of infection by rot.





Growing Tips

Seeds can be sown in a box in March, then dive in pots. In late spring, you can plant in the ground. So that in May the balsam has already bloomed, it should be sown no later than January. Seeds are pre-soaked in warm water, and before that you need to hold them in a solution of manganese (10 minutes).

The substrate (peat, sand, perlite) must be moist, the sown seeds are covered with glass or polyethylene, the temperature is maintained at 18 ° -20 °. Regular ventilation and hydration is very important. After the appearance of two leaves, seedlings dive into pots, it will take about 4 months to grow seedlings.


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