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Jerusalem artichoke has been growing on the territory of our country for more than three centuries. The roots of the "earthen pear" contain many vitamins, minerals and organic acids. In addition, they are a source of inulin - an analogue of insulin, a substance that is simply indispensable for people with diabetes. To make this plant take root in your area, follow these guidelines.
The best time for planting Jerusalem artichoke is autumn and not too early spring (when the soil is warm enough). At the same time, whole tubers are planted in the fall, and in the spring they are usually divided into several parts.
Soil for culture
Choosing the right place for planting Jerusalem artichoke in the country, you need to think about the soil. By and large, it will not be necessary to make soil additions or replacements at the places of planting, since the plant normally refers to almost any type of soil. The only thing you should try not to plant an earthen pear on salt marshes and heavy soils.
However, no matter how the plant relates to the place of growth, the soil will need to be prepared.
Soil preparation begins in the autumn, when compost or manure is fertilized in the selected place and dug up. For the winter, you can leave large clods of land without breaking them, as the main processing will occur during planting.
Planting Jerusalem artichoke in the country
For planting, small and even tubers are selected, the size of the tubers is about the size of a chicken egg. Planting is done in shallow trenches, not more than 15 cm. So that the plant can develop normally in the future, the distance in the row should be 35-45 cm.
After planting tubers in a trench, it is sealed with a rake. A mandatory requirement is a small comb. If you are going to plant Jerusalem artichoke in the garden or in the garden in large quantities, then you need to keep the scheme of 40x70 cm, in a row and between rows, respectively.
Planting time - the end of April or the beginning of May, very often the planting dates are compared with potato.
They say that an earthen pear is unpretentious and does not require any care, but we do not believe this, since any plant requires a certain care, and the more attention you pay to agricultural technology, the better the result.
Naturally, even if the plant can grow on its own and show good yields, then with a certain amount of care, the fees can be increased several times. So, how to care for Jerusalem artichoke?
In the first weeks after planting, it is necessary to loosen the soil to ensure normal aeration. At the same time, weeds should be removed from plantings and aisles. After the emergence of seedlings, and it is possible after 15-25 days, you should behave more carefully, but do not stop loosening the soil and remove weeds. By the time the growth of 40-50 cm is reached, the plants in the planting will need to be earthed out. Upon reaching a growth of 80-100 cm, Jerusalem artichoke will have to be tied up. Naturally, it will be almost impossible to install a support for each stem, and therefore we offer wire supports with metal or wooden struts-bases.
During flowering, the following actions should be taken that can increase productivity:
- Continue to spud the plant;
- Cut flowers so that Jerusalem artichoke does not spend extra energy on flowering and seed formation, but allows all the juices to grow tubers;
- And also to introduce organic fertilizers into the soil, for example, a solution on green manure or seaweed.
It takes about 120 days to fully ripen Jerusalem artichoke tubers. There is no point in harvesting them earlier, otherwise you will get just a low-quality crop, but you can do it later.
Tubers are harvested in the fall, upon arrival of the ripening dates, or in the spring. The tubers calmly survive the winter, sometimes up to -40 ° C, but for this they need a little shelter with soil and snow after it falls out.
You can harvest as follows - in half in autumn and spring. Especially enterprising summer residents who do not want to toil with the plant in the autumn period and look for a storage place for it do this. Part of the harvest is harvested in the fall, as it ripens, for their own needs. The rest of the crop hibernates in the soil and is harvested in the spring.
In this case, the main thing is not to forget to collect tubers with the onset of heat, otherwise Jerusalem artichoke can very quickly give shoots and become no longer the most useful plant for a vegetable garden or garden.
Jerusalem artichoke is one of the few plants in the garden that does not produce diseases and pests around itself, but it also happens that the plant still suffers from a variety of misfortunes.
Pests of earthen pears are slugs, which, having reached the tubers, seriously damage their quality and eat them out from the inside. In addition, various larvae that live and develop in the soil can feed on tubers. You can deal with a similar problem with the help of special anti-mucus granules and diazon. These funds will help to avoid crop loss from pests.
Undoubtedly, some diseases can attack the plant, but you can deal with them quite simply. The main disease of Jerusalem artichoke is white rot, which, developing, forms a rather unpleasant white mold on the plant stem. Affected stems get sick, become covered with black growths from the inside and die. Having noticed such signs, be sure to remove the diseased plants from the planting and burn.
Diseases and pests of Jerusalem artichoke can not be detected immediately, but if you see that the plant withers, loses leaves or changes color, be careful, because this may be signs.
We have collected some interesting facts - the features of Jerusalem artichoke cultivation, which will be of interest to everyone who paid attention to this plant.
- Jerusalem artichoke can be grown in one place for up to 40 years, while without damaging the soil of the site.
- An earthen pear is planted with tubers, just like ordinary potatoes.
- The plant is frost-resistant and can easily withstand severe frosts. At the same time, green shoots are up to -5 ° С, and tubers are up to -40 ° С.
- In the southern regions, it is recommended to plant the plant in the fall, in the northern - in the spring.
- Serious harvests can be expected in the next few years after the first planting of tubers in the soil. From around the fifth year, crops will be gradually bred.
- The average yield of an adult bush can reach up to 2 buckets of tubers.
- By mid-summer, it is necessary to prune Jerusalem artichoke bushes, leaving them no more than 1.5 m tall. In addition, try to remove all inflorescences.
- Autumn cold is a harbinger of the need to remove the stems of the plant, leaving only 20-30 cm above ground level. Around the same time, it will be possible to begin harvesting.
It is not difficult to grow Jerusalem artichoke, however, if you want to get a serious crop, you will have to at least try a little.
Growing Jerusalem artichoke in the country It can be specialized for its own kitchen needs, but it can also be aimed at the formation of feed reserve for country animals. In addition to such needs, earth pear is widely used in medicine, and, by the way, is an effective remedy against some ailments. But sometimes it is required to remove Jerusalem artichoke from the site. Read about methods of plant breeding here.